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Manuscripts Buying Guide

Manuscripts Buying Guide

2021-11-23
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ManuscriptsThere are three manuscripts of Lamprecht's poem extant, one from Vorau which is not quite complete, one from Strasburg dating from 1187, which is about five times as extensive as the preceding, and lastly a version interpolated in the manuscript of a Basle chronicle. The relationship of the manuscripts to one another is in doubt. The Vorau manuscript is generally regarded as the oldest and most authentic; that of Strasburg as an amplified recension. The Basle manuscript is certainly late and inferior in value to the other two.— — — — — —Fate of Stroud's manuscriptsWith the court orders removing them from custody of the U. S. District Court and transferring them to Mr. Martin as the administrator of Stroud's estate, together with Thomas Gaddis's notes of Birdman of Alcatraz, Mr. Martin consigned the manuscript and partnered with Springfield, MO author; JE Cornwell. Together they attempted to attract a major publishing company to publish the manuscript into four books. Mr. Martin also expressed his intent to put the original hand written manuscript up for sale at an auction-house, which has locations in both New York, New York and San Francisco, California. In early 2014, the imminent publication of Stroud's manuscript was reported by several news outlets. On February 5, 2014, Looking Outward: A Voice From The Grave was made available for purchase as an Amazon Kindle eBook. By January 2015 it was also available in paperback form. As noted in the book's Prologue, "[the] work was originally divided into six parts. However, due to the death of the Writer, only four parts were completed" and the 2014 edition contains only the first of four parts of the entire manuscript, but as of Fall 2015 no additional date was known for the availability of the other two parts.— — — — — —Speeches and manuscriptsMcKinley, William. Speeches and Addresses of William McKinley: from his election to Congress to the present time (1893) McKinley, William. Abraham Lincoln. An Address by William McKinley of Ohio. Before the Marquette Club. Chicago. February 12, 1896 (1896) McKinley, William. Speeches and Addresses of William McKinley: from March 1, 1897, to May 30, 1900 (1900) McKinley, William. The Tariff; a Review of the Tariff Legislation of the United States from 1812 to 1896 (1904)— — — — — —Digitised manuscriptsGetty Research Institute has two copies The John Adams Library at the Boston Public Library Sylvia Ioannou Foundation— — — — — —Discovery of manuscriptsFollowing her death, much of her work was overshadowed as new musical styles emerged that fit the changing tastes of modern society. Some of her work was lost, but as more African-American and female composers have gained attention for their works, so has Price. In 2001, the Women's Philharmonic created an album of some of her work. Pianist Karen Walwyn and The New Black Repertory Ensemble performed Price's Concerto in One Movement and Symphony in E minor in December 2011. In 2009, a substantial collection of her works and papers were found in an abandoned dilapidated house on the outskirts of St. Anne, Illinois. These consisted of dozens of her scores, including her two violin concertos and her fourth symphony. As Alex Ross stated in The New Yorker in February 2018, "not only did Price fail to enter the canon; a large quantity of her music came perilously close to obliteration. That run-down house in St. Anne is a potent symbol of how a country can forget its cultural history." In November 2018, the New York-based firm of G. Schirmer announced that it had acquired the exclusive worldwide rights to Florence Price's complete catalog.— — — — — —Early Quranic manuscriptsIn Muslim tradition the Quran is a final revelation from God, Islam's divine text, delivered to the Prophet of Islam Muhammad, through the angel Jabreel (Gabriel). Muhammad's revelations were said to have been recorded orally and in writing, through Muhammad and his followers up until his death in 632, and then compiled by first caliph Abu Bakr and codified during the reign of the third caliph Uthman (r. 644-656) so that the standard codex edition of the Quran or "Muaf" was completed around 650 CE, according to Muslim scholars. However, some Western scholars (John Wansbrough) have questioned this, suggesting the Quran was canonized at a later date, based on the fact that the classical Islamic narratives were written generations-150 to 200 years-after the death of Muhammad. According to Corpus Coranicum, a research organisation funded by the Government of Germany, more than 60 fragments including more than 2000 folios (4000 pages) are so far known as the textual witnesses (manuscripts) of the Qur'an before 800 CE (within 168 years after the death of Prophet Muhammad). However, in 2015, experts from the University of Birmingham UK introduced a manuscript which is possibly the oldest manuscript of the Quran in the world. Radiocarbon tests to determine the age of the manuscript revealed that this manuscript could be traced back to between 6th or 7th century (between 568 and 645 CE). Selected manuscripts from the first four centuries after the death of Muhammad (632-1032 CE) are listed below.
Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts
Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts
Center for the Study of New Testament ManuscriptsThe Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization whose mission is to digitally preserve Greek New Testament manuscripts. Toward that end, CSNTM takes digital photographs of manuscripts at institutions, libraries, museums, monasteries, universities, and archives around the world. The images produced are freely accessible on the Center's website-a searchable library of Greek New Testament manuscripts. With more than 50,000 users examining manuscripts in their digital library each year, the Center's digitization work facilitates a partnership between manuscript owners, archivists, and researchers around the world— — — — — —Manuscripts and datingThe saga survives in three early manuscripts. Each has a rather different version of the text: Hauksbk (earlier fourteenth century), beginning missing due to lost pages Mruvallabk (mid-fourteenth century), end missing due to lost pages Flateyjarbk (c. 1390)The date of composition of the lost written archetype of Fstbrra saga has been the subject of considerable dispute. Sigurur Nordal argued for ca. 1200 (Bjrn K. orlfsson and Guni Jnsson 1943: lxxii) whereas Jnas Kristjnsson argued for the end of the century (1972, 310). There is no clear consensus, though Andersson's 2013 analysis preferred an early dating of 'presumably not much later than 1200' (2013, 72). A long-standing controversy centers on which manuscripts represent the most original version. In particular, the debate has focused on several unusual "clauses" (Icelandic klausur) or asides in the saga which do not fit in with conventional saga style. These have been understood both as late interpolations and as signs of an early, developing saga style (Jnas Kristjnsson 1972). The skaldic stanzas attributed to ormr kolbrnarskld Bersason appear genuine (according to Guni Jnsson in Bjrn K. orlfsson and Guni Jnsson 1943: lxi); he would have composed ca. 1010-1030 (according to Guni Jnsson in Bjrn K. orlfsson and Guni Jnsson 1943: lxix).— — — — — —Kannada copper plates and manuscriptsThe 8th century AD oldest Kannada copper plate inscription found at Belmannu in Karkala taluk of Udupi district. Western Ganga Dynasty Tumbula inscriptions of 444 AD The 8th century AD Aluvarasa II of Alupas copper plate inscription in Kannada. The 1430 AD Vijayanagara empire Devarajapuram copper plate inscription having state-deity Virupaksha's signature at the bottom in Kannada script to certify a grant of land to Brahmins (by King Devaraya II (1425-1446)).— — — — — —Manuscripts and versionsThe chronicle survives in two versions; there are seven manuscripts of each. Up to 1135 (the death of Henry I, line 9137 in Wright's edition of the longer version), the versions are 'broadly identical', 'but they then have wholly different continuations'. The longer version contains almost 3000 more lines, is more detailed, and ends (in the least incomplete manuscript) in 1271. The shorter version only contains a further 592 lines, and ends in the 1280s. However, this shorter version adds about 800 lines earlier in the text, some of them deriving from Laamon's Brut. The manuscripts of the longer version are: Cotton Caligula A. xi (s. xiv in.) BL Add. MS. 19677 (s. xiv/xv) (with gaps partly filled by BL Add. 50848) Harley 201 (s. xv1, breaking off at line 9259) BL Add. 18631 (s. xv mid., abbreviated) Glasgow, Hunterian V. 3. 13 (s. xvi mid.) Balliol College, Oxford, 695.h.6: two binding fragments (s. xiv2) College of Arms lviii (completed 1448, with prose and verse insertions)The manuscripts of the shorter version are: Trinity College, Cambridge R.4.26 (c. 1400) Magdalene College, Cambridge, Pepys Library 2014 (s. xv in., defective) Bodleian Library, Digby 205 (s. xv in.) Huntington Library, HM. 126 (s. xv1) London University Library 278 (s. xv mid.) BL Sloane 2027 (s. xv mid, abbreviated) Cambridge University Library Ee.4.31 (s. xv mid)— — — — — —History of the manuscriptsRobert Riddell provided Burns with two attractive quarto sized volumes embossed with his armorial crest and bound in calf leather. They were slightly different sizes. Work started in May 1789 on adding the poems and songs. The 'stock and horn' of Burns's armorial bearing is placed on the frontispiece of the second volume. Burns went to considerable efforts to get the first volume returned after Robert Riddell's death on 20 April 1794 and added extra material once it was back in his hands. The second volume had not been ready in time to be presented to Riddell. Burns wrote in 1794 to Robert Riddell's unmarried sister Eleanor, asking that she and her married sister Elizabeth would either return or destroy the manuscripts, saying that "I made a collection of all my trifles in verse which I had ever written. They are many of them local, some puerile and silly, and all of them unfit for the public eye. As I have some little fame at stake ... I am uneasy now for the fate of those manuscripts. ... As a pledge of friendship they were bestowed; and that circumstance, indeed, was all their merit." Burns was still working on the second volume in late 1793. One of the additions he made to Volume One upon its return was the blunt and angry epigram upon Maria Riddell on page 161 "If you rattle along like your mistress's tongue." After Burns's death the manuscripts were put into the hands of James Currie at Liverpool, his biographer, however they were not automatically returned to the Burns family after his biography of Burns was published and he died before he could publish an improved biography. After Currie's death they passed into the possession of his son William Wallace Currie. In 1853 when William died his widow, without permission, offered them to a private gentlemen's club known as the Liverpool Athenaeum where they resided, forgotten in a box for circa twenty years, until in 1873 Mr. Henry A. Bright, uncovered them, wrote an account of them and put on display for 6 months. The club eventually decided to sell the manuscripts in what is likely to have been an illegal transaction, despite vociferous objections and the establishment of a 'Scots Committee' under the chairmanship of Lord Rosebery who intended to take action in the courts. The Liverpool Athenaeum added 'insult to injury' by revealing that they would use the proceeds of the sale to establish a 'Currie Memorial Fund'. Dr. James Currie had however signed a letter in 1797 that stated "..that whatever was done as to the returning any letters, papers, etc., should be considered as the act of the widow and transacted in her name." Messrs. Sotheby & Co. exercised their option to purchase the manuscripts on 3 June 1913 and paid 5000. Miss Annie Burns Burns of Cheltenham, the poet's only surviving grandchild, was appointed the Executrix Dative of Robert Burns with a strong legal case for the manuscripts return to the family, however the Liverpool Athenaeum refused. Sotheby's agreed however to abide with any court decision. Joseph W. Hornstein, a London bookdealer, purchased the manuscripts for 5000 by private treaty from Sotheby's and sold them to an American client, who was not however as is sometimes stated, J. Pierpoint Morgan. Hornstein reportedly tried to have them returned however he died very soon after the sale. Another reference gives J. Pierpoint Morgan being involved in a proposed purchase in 1903 that fell through due to adverse publicity, explaining the extreme secrecy of the 1913 affair. Additionally it is said that Hornstein's agent approached several prospective purchasers in America without success due to the adverse reaction in Scotland. Some clarity to the confusion comes from the fact that the Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury reminded its readers that circa 10 years before the paper had taken the lead in preventing the Athenaneum from selling the manuscripts on that occasion, probably to J.P.Morgan. In late 1913 the businessman and antiquarian collector John Gribbel was approached with a view to a sale to him of the Glenriddell Manuscripts. On 21 November 1913 John Gribbel purchased the Glenriddell Manuscripts and on the same day notified Lord Rosebery, Chairman of the Scots Committee, that he intended them to be a gift to the Scottish people in perpetuity and they were one of the first significant donations to the newly created National Library of Scotland in 1926, having previously been in the care of the Edinburgh Corporation from August 1914 to 1919 and the Glasgow Corporation until 1926.
Manuscripts Housed in the Library
Manuscripts Housed in the Library
Manuscripts housed in the libraryMinuscule 559— — — — — —Illuminated manuscriptsThe most numerous surviving works of the Carolingian renaissance are illuminated manuscripts. A number of luxury manuscripts, mostly Gospel books, have survived, decorated with a relatively small number of full-page miniatures, often including evangelist portraits, and lavish canon tables, following the precedent of the Insular art of Britain and Ireland. Narrative images and especially cycles are rarer, but many exist, mostly of the Old Testament, especially Genesis; New Testament scenes are more often found on the ivory reliefs on the covers. The oversized and heavily decorated initials of Insular art were adopted, and the historiated initial further developed, with small narrative scenes seen for the first time towards the end of the period-notably in the Drogo Sacramentary. Luxury manuscripts were given treasure bindings or rich covers with jewels set in gold and carved ivory panels, and, as in Insular art, were prestige objects kept in the church or treasury, and a different class of object from the working manuscripts kept in the library, where some initials might be decorated, and pen drawings added in a few places. A few of the grandest imperial manuscripts were written on purple parchment. The Bern Physiologus is a relatively rare example of a secular manuscript heavily illustrated with fully painted miniatures, lying in between these two classes, and perhaps produced for the private library of an important individual, as was the Vatican Terence. The Utrecht Psalter, stands alone as a very heavily illustrated library version of the Psalms done in pen and wash, and almost certainly copied from a much earlier manuscript. Other liturgical works were sometimes produced in luxury manuscripts, such as sacramentaries, but no Carolingian Bible is decorated as heavily as the Late Antique examples that survive in fragments. Teaching books such as theological, historical, literary and scientific works from ancient authors were copied and generally only illustrated in ink, if at all. The Chronography of 354 was a Late Roman manuscript that apparently was copied in the Carolingian period, though this copy seems to have been lost in the 17th century. Centres of illuminationCarolingian manuscripts are presumed to have been produced largely or entirely by clerics, in a few workshops around the Carolingian Empire, each with its own style that developed based on the artists and influences of that particular location and time. Manuscripts often have inscriptions, not necessarily contemporary, as to who commissioned them, and which church or monastery they were given to, but few dates or names and locations of those producing them. The surviving manuscripts have been assigned, and often reassigned, to workshops by scholars, and the controversies attending this process have largely died down. The earliest workshop was the Court School of Charlemagne; then a Rheimsian style, which became the most influential of the Carolingian period; a Touronian style; a Drogo style; and finally a Court School of Charles the Bald. These are the major centres, but others exist, characterized by the works of art produced there. The Court School of Charlemagne (also known as the Ada School) produced the earliest manuscripts, including the Godescalc Evangelistary (781-783); the Lorsch Gospels (778-820); the Ada Gospels; the Soissons Gospels; the Harley Golden Gospels (800-820); and the Vienna Coronation Gospels; ten manuscripts in total are usually recognised. The Court School manuscripts were ornate and ostentatious, and reminiscent of 6th-century ivories and mosaics from Ravenna, Italy. They were the earliest Carolingian manuscripts and initiated a revival of Roman classicism, yet still maintained Migration Period art (Merovingian and Insular) traditions in their basically linear presentation, with no concern for volume and spatial relationships. In the early 9th-century Archbishop Ebo of Rheims, at Hautvillers (near Rheims), assembled artists and transformed Carolingian art to something entirely new. The Gospel book of Ebbo (816-835) was painted with swift, fresh and vibrant brush strokes, evoking an inspiration and energy unknown in classical Mediterranean forms. Other books associated with the Rheims school include the Utrecht Psalter, which was perhaps the most important of all Carolingian manuscripts, and the Bern Physiologus, the earliest Latin edition of the Christian allegorical text on animals. The expressive animations of the Rheims school, in particular the Utrecht Psalter with its naturalistic expressive figurine line drawings, would have influence on northern medieval art for centuries to follow, into the Romanesque period. Another style developed at the monastery of St Martin of Tours, in which large Bibles were illustrated based on Late Antique bible illustrations. Three large Touronian Bibles were created, the last, and best, example was made about 845/846 for Charles the Bald, called the Vivian Bible. The Tours School was cut short by the invasion of the Normans in 853, but its style had already left a permanent mark on other centers in the Carolingian Empire. The diocese of Metz was another center of Carolingian art. Between 850 and 855 a sacramentary was made for Bishop Drogo called the Drogo Sacramentary. The illuminated "historiated" decorated initials (see image this page) were to have influence into the Romanesque period and were a harmonious union of classical lettering with figural scenes. In the second half of the 9th century the traditions of the first half continued. A number of richly decorated Bibles were made for Charles the Bald, fusing Late Antiquity forms with the styles developed at Rheims and Tours. It was during this time a Franco-Saxon style appeared in the north of France, integrating Hiberno-Saxon interlace, and would outlast all other Carolingian styles into the next century. Charles the Bald, like his grandfather, also established a Court School. Its location is uncertain but several manuscripts are attributed to it, with the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram (870) being the last and most spectacular. It contained Touronian and Rheimsian elements, but fused with the style that characterized Charlemagne's Court School more formal manuscripts. With the death of Charles the Bald patronage for manuscripts declined, signaling the beginning of the end, but some work did continue for a while. The Abbey of St. Gall created the Folchard Psalter (872) and the Golden Psalter (883). This Gallish style was unique, but lacked the level of technical mastery seen in other regions.
List of Manuscripts in the Cotton Library
List of Manuscripts in the Cotton Library
List of manuscripts in the Cotton libraryThis is an incomplete list of some of the manuscripts from the Cotton library that today form the Cotton collection of the British Library. Some manuscripts were destroyed or damaged in a fire at Ashburnham House in 1731, and a few are kept in other libraries and collections. Robert Bruce Cotton organized his library in a room 26 feet (7.9 m) long by six feet wide filled with bookpresses, each with the bust of a figure from classical antiquity on top. Counterclockwise, these were Julius Caesar, Augustus, Cleopatra, Faustina, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. (Domitian had only one shelf, perhaps because it was over the door). In each press, each shelf was assigned a letter; manuscripts were identified by the bust over the press, the shelf letter, and the position of the manuscript (in Roman numerals) counting from the left side of the shelf. Thus, the Lindisfarne Gospels, Nero B.iv, was the fourth manuscript from the left on the second shelf (shelf B) of the press under the bust of Nero. For Domitian and Augustus, which had only one shelf each, the shelf letter was left out of the press-mark. The British Museum retained Cotton's press-marks when the Cotton collection became one of the foundational collections of its library, so manuscripts are still designated by library, bookpress, shelf, and number (even though they are no longer stored in that fashion). For example, the manuscript of Beowulf is designated Cotton MS Vitellius A.xv, and the manuscript of Pearl is Cotton MS Nero A.x.— — — — — —Significant manuscripts (with articles)Cotton Genesis, 4th or 5th century, heavily illustrated. Images copied before the original was mostly destroyed in the Cotton library fire in 1731, leaving only eighteen charred fragments. Ambrosian Iliad, 52 small images cut out in the Middle Ages from a 5th-century manuscript Old Testament fragment (Naples, Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele III, I B 18), 5th-century Coptic fragment Rabbula Gospels, 6th-century Syriac gospel book Alexandrian World Chronicle, probably 6th-century fragmentary world history London Canon Tables, 6th-7th century fragment of a grand gospel book. Syriac Bible of Paris, 6th-7th century, much missing Vienna Dioscurides, early 6th-century medical text Naples Dioscurides, 7th century Paris Gregory, c. 880, a gift for the emperor Sacra Parallela, a 9th-century manuscript in Paris has 1,658 illustrations Chludov Psalter, 9th century, many small illustrations, some related to the controversy over Byzantine iconoclasm Paris Psalter, 10th-century luxury psalter with 14 full-page miniatures Joshua Roll, 10th century scroll with large illustrations of the story of Joshua Menologion of Basil II, c. 1000, 430 mostly half-page pictures Madrid Skylitzes, 12th century chronicle with 574 small miniatures, produced in Sicily, probably copying an older version— — — — — —ManuscriptsThe Kamasutra manuscripts have survived in many versions across the Indian subcontinent. While attempting to get a translation of the Sanskrit kama-sastra text Anangaranga that had already been widely translated by the Hindus in regional languages such as Marathi, associates of the British Orientalist Richard Burton stumbled into portions of the Kamasutra manuscript. They commissioned the Sanskrit scholar Bhagvanlal Indraji to locate a complete Kamasutra manuscript and translate it. Indraji collected variant manuscripts in libraries and temples of Varanasi, Kolkata and Jaipur. Burton published an edited English translation of these manuscripts, but not a critical edition of the Kamasutra in Sanskrit. According to S.C. Upadhyaya, known for his 1961 scholarly study and a more accurate translation of the Kamasutra, there are issues with the manuscripts that have survived and the text likely underwent revisions over time. This is confirmed by other 1st-millennium CE Hindu texts on kama that mention and cite the Kamasutra, but some of these quotations credited to the Kamasutra by these historic authors "are not to be found in the text of the Kamasutra" that have survived.— — — — — —Extant manuscripts with philosophical interestAll of Demarco's manuscripts are held at the National Library of Malta in Valletta, and still in their manuscript form. Though some interest in the man's activities and intellectual endeavours had always been kept alive amongst academics, little serious effort had ever been made to bring his scientific and philosophical accomplishments fully out in the open. The ones commented upon here are solely those which retain some philosophical interest. Of course, from a medical point of view all of his works would be relevant and worthy of thorough comprehension. All manuscripts are written in Demarco's typical minuscule, crammed and barely legible handwriting, which of course makes reading, transliteration, translation and study immensely difficult. This is one of the most pertinent reasons, amongst others, for which Demarco's intellectual enterprise remains unexplored completely unto this day. PhilosophyDe Logica (Concerning Logic; c. 1760) - A work in Latin (with unnumbered pages) which bears the subtitle Prlectiones Nonnull (A Few Instructions). It seems to have been intended as an introduction to logic for beginners. Atrium in Universam Physicam Experimentalem (An Introduction to Universal Experimental Physics; 1760) - This extant manuscript in Latin is incomplete and was left in draft form by Demarco himself. It is a commentary on the first book of Aristotle's De Naturalibus (On Natural Things) or, in other words, on his De Sensu et Sensato (On Sense and Sensibility) of his Parva Naturalia (Brief Comments on Natural Things). What brought Demarco to commence this commentary was a new publication issued at Avignon, France, of Aristotle's work. Varia (Miscellaneous; c. 1760) - Two Latin manuscripts which are together composed of 550 folios. They contain a colossal number of reflections in no order whatsoever. Herein Demarco simply jotted down any thought and musing as they came to mind. Very often is quite difficult to distinguish one from the other. At the end of the work, Demarco was considerate enough to include an index of contents. Obviously this was for his own use, as it is absolutely impossible to follow. Generalis Philosophi Atrium (A General Introduction to Philosophy; 1763) - The main idea of this manuscript in Latin is to provide a general introduction to what Demarco calls philosophi experimentalis (experimental philosophy) and all its divisions. The work has 43 chapters organised under 13 titles. The extant manuscript also includes marginal notes added by Demarco himself. The content deals with philosophy by respectively focusing on its qualifications; its structure; its objectives; its initial history; its history after classical times; its development; its academic divisions; the growth of its schools of thought; its main themes; its results; important Presocratic themes, and their meaning. The last title is reserved for some general comments concerning philosophy.Social philosophyEpistola Dedicatoria (A Memorial Missive; 1754) - Text of an open letter in Latin supposedly sent from Senglea, Malta, on January 12, 1754, to Don Josepho de Dueas, one of the Knights Hospitallers in Malta. The 15-folio long letter is certainly of a historical and literary value. However, also is interesting for the fact that it reveals some of Demarco's philosophical aptitudes. Delle Torture (Concerning Torture; c. 1750) - This manuscript in Italian had been left unfinished by Demarco himself. It is a very interesting study on the use of torture (common still in Demarco's day) from different angles. Nonetheless, Demarco stops short of expressing any moral pronouncement on the subject. Mannarino (Mannarino; 1773) - This is another open letter dedicated to a personality in Maltese history, Don Gaetano Mannarino. This priest was actually a contemporary of Demarco. From February 1773, he organised a group of fellow priests who, eventually, took up arms against Francisco Ximenes de Texada, the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitallers, in protest for retracting some of their rights and privileges. The actual revolt of the priests took place on September 9, 1775. Nonetheless, Demarco's letter was written on October 22, of two years earlier. It still addresses some of the presumed issued which were being brought forward by the priests. Typically (and revealingly), in his missive Demarco sides with the Grand Master's point of view, and admonishes Mannarino and his collaborators for being so unreasonable and unruly.PathologyFasti: Morborum Melitensis (A Record: Maltese Infirmities; 1763-87) - An interesting document in which Demarco progressively recorded his thoughts and reflections. The manuscript, which is composed of 296 folios, is reserved for observations concerning infirmities of the body and also of the soul. Some entries are of philosophical interest. The document opens with a Latin preface, and closes with a Latin epilogue and, finally, 50 aphorisms. Physiologie Cursus: Anatomico - meccanico - experimentalis (A Course in Physiology: Anatomical - mechanical - experimental; 1765) - A study in Latin which deals with various aspects of physiology. Though the mechanistic concept of the body and of creation is accepted as basic, Demarco produces some objections and discussions for the acknowledgement of its absolute validity. Patologicus Brevis Cursus (A Short Course in Pathology; 1774) - A work in Latin which goes into the nature of mental illnesses. The content is divided in 222 parts.Philosophical physiologyTractatus de Rabie (A Treatise concerning Rabies; c. 1742) - This Latin composition is made up of only 23 folios. The content, which does not include any internal divisions, was the work of a young Demarco probably before studying in France. It largely focuses on the nature of anger, especially from a physiological point of view. Nevertheless, Demarco also sees it fit to touch upon some philosophical themes here and then. Tractatus de Affectione (A Treatise on the Passions; 1764) - The main theme of this manuscript in Latin is the passions which overcome humans when their freedom of will becomes wanting. The work, which is made up of 76 folios, is divided in subtitles. At the end it includes an index of contents.ScienceTrattato della Trigonometria Piana (A Treatise concerning Standard Trigonometry; 1742) - The work bears the subtitle: Con un breve saggio della Geometria Practica (With a brief study concerning Practical Geometry). The manuscript is made up of 212 folios, and written in Italian. The content is divided in Explications, Definitions (meaning concepts), and Propositions (including examples). The work is basically about flat triangles as distinguishable from spherical triangles. Vulgaris Arithmetic Elementaris Theoria (A Common Theory of Elementary Arithmetic; c. 1742) - This manuscript in Latin is made up of 58 folios, and divided into subtitles. Demarco focuses respectively on algebra, numerics, addition, and other arithmetic functions. An effort seems to have been made to make such an abstract subject understandable by non-professionals. Trait de Physique (A Treatise concerning the Human Body; 1745) - Notes in French of a course given by Demarco at the University of Montpellier while terminating his studies there. The content is divided in Subtitles and Sections. Of course, it deals with various aspects of the physical constitution of human beings.
How to Remove Soot and Smoke - Blog
How to Remove Soot and Smoke - Blog
Smoke is emitted when a substance undergoes combustion. It is a visible, airborne substance that is mainly made up of carbon particles. Just like soot, the components of smoke will be determined by what has actually burned. Smoke can not only contain carbon, tar, oils and ash, it can also contain thousands of chemicals. Smoke is an irritant and can be highly toxic.Is this bug poisonous or toxic?non toxic, though they do emit a juice that makes them taste bad to other animalsIs beef jerky toxic to cats?Chewing off the pieces could choke her, and the jerky is made with WAY too much salt and nitrates to be good for her (diarhea time), but she should be over it soon. Just make sure she does not get into that againHow toxic is fabric softener?I have directly copied and pasted the information below from a website :Eco watch.com- well worth pursuing to find out how we're poisoning our world and ourselves through unnecessary chemicals. Here is what they have to say :'Healthy Child Healthy World recommends skipping fabric softeners entirely. Here are the worst chemicals to watch for in your laundry basket-and what to use instead.'Quats"Quaternary ammonium compounds make clothes feel soft and wearable right out of the wash, but they're known to trigger asthma and may be toxic to our reproductive systems.Check labels and product websites for these ingredients: distearyldimonium chloride, diethyl ester dimethyl ammonium chloride, variants of hydroxyethyl methyl ammonium methyl sulfate or the vague terms 'biodegradable fabric softening agents" and 'cationic surfactant. " Avoid them all. FragranceThere are more than 3,000 fragrance ingredients in common household products-and scarcely any way to know what they are.Your fabric softener may contain phthalates, which disperse the scent; synthetic musks such as galaxolide, which accumulate in the body; and much more. Fragrance mixes can cause allergies, skin irritations such as dermatitis, difficulty breathing and potential reproductive harm. Research indicates that scents also cause irritation when vented outdoors, especially for asthmatics and those sensitive to chemicals. Not worth it.Preservatives and ColorsLike fragrance, the terms 'preservatives" and 'colors" or 'colorants" on an ingredient label may refer to any number of chemicals. The most worrisome preservatives in fabric softeners include methylisothiazolinone, a potent skin allergen and glutaral, known to trigger asthma and skin allergies. Glutaral (or glutaraldehyde) is also toxic to marine life. Among artificial colors, D&C violet 2 has been linked to cancer. Others may contain impurities that can cause cancerSo skip fabric softeners and conditioners in any form-pellets, crystals, bars or single-dose packs. You won't notice the difference. Or you can try these ideas instead:Try adding half a cup of distilled white vinegar to your washing machine during the rinse cycle. Don't worry: the smell doesn't linger on clothes.If you're not line-drying, run the drying machine with just your clothes inside. (To reduce static, do not over-dry. ) Not only do dryer sheets contain a variety of chemicals, but neither plant-based nor polyester types are reusable, creating extra waste. Look for unscented versions and always be leery of essential oils, which can cause allergic reactions after just few contacts"Hope this helps you to decide NOT to use fabric conditioner.How toxic is fabric softener?Glaze Toxicity and Dinnerware SafetyMany people are confused about the safety of glazes, and rightfully so. It is a complex issue with many variables. So we will attempt to clarify this without causing more confusion. The two materials that are proven toxic are lead and cadmium. Lead is used to make glazes flow better at low temperatures. Cadmium is used primarily to create bright orange and red colors. There are other materials which may be toxic, but there is not enough evidence that they are unsafe at this time, so they are not regulated. Many of these materials are safe in low doses (for example, nickel, barium, selenium and cobalt), but toxic in high doses. So reducing leaching as much as possible is always a good idea. Commercial glaze manufacturers label their glazes using ASTM D-4236. All their glazes are either AP Non-toxic, which means non-toxic in liquid or dry form, or CL Cautions Required, which means it has proper labeling of ingredients for health and safety. In this sense, non-toxic only refers to lead and cadmium. All glazes sold in K-12 schools must be AP Non-toxic. This is to reduce the risk of harm if a child drinks the glaze. You do not want a lead-based glaze in the classroom for example. You will see the AP Non-toxic label on the glaze bottle; a circle with an AP inside. Remember, all glazes in DRY form are unsafe for breathing, and you should use a good mask whenever dealing with dry glazes. There are chemicals such as manganese which are known to be a health hazard when breathed in dry form, but are not believed to be a problem after being fired. And even clay particles with no toxicity get trapped inside lungs and thus are bad for potters to breathe. This is what most potters are interested in. Can you use a certain glaze on a piece which will contain food and beverages? Toxicity is one aspect of this. (If you have fired leaded glazes before, your kiln brick may have absorbed lead and could be depositing it on current firings. And of course you should never fire dinnerware in a kiln with other leaded glazes.) There are some glazes that have lead or cadmium and still say they are dinnerware safe. (A small amount of leaching is allowed by law.) There are also some glazes where the cadmium is encapsulated in other glaze ingredients which traps it when fired. For this reason, it is best to have a sample tested anytime you use glazes which contain lead or cadmium. Later on I will tell you how to do that. Any time you begin to layer glazes, you are pretty much on your own. Any testing that the manufacturer did will not be applicable. If you do not use any glazes with lead or cadmium as ingredients, you are pretty safe (with the caveats above. Many potters believe that you should never use these ingredients in dinnerware period. Who knows what may happen to the glaze after years of use, after going through the dishwasher 30 times, after the glazes cure, after they are microwaved and frozen and bombarded with acidic food. It is always possible that a piece will leach lead or cadmium at some point in the future. So to be safe, just avoid them. Then of course there are the ingredients which are not regulated, but may be toxic especially in high amounts. Unfortunately there is no simple answer to this problem. If you are producing dinnerware then it is advised that you have sample pieces tested for the various ingredients which might be leaching. (See instructions below for how to do this.) There are other issues that determine whether a piece appropriate for dinnerware use. • Resistance to abrasion (does it scratch easily with silverware?). It is usually a problem more with matte glazes than shiny. • Ability to handle acidic foods. See if the color changes. If it does, there is some leaching going on. A customer could run into this same color change, and there may be chemicals leaking out. Finally, there is lab testing, described later. • Ability to withstand alkaline dishwashing detergents. Bring to boil. Reduce heat to a simmer. Place samples in the pan, cover, and simmer for 6 hours. Compare the color and surface gloss to a similar but untested sample. • Ability to withstand thermal shock. This does not mean that you can place a ceramic pan over a flame, or directly into a hot oven. It is very difficult to make pieces that can go directly over flames, and not something an individual should attempt. Ceramic casseroles, etc. should be put into the oven at room temperature, and brought up to temperature slowly. However, your customers might not know this, and even if you tell them, they probably wo not remember. Then submerge the piece in a pot of boiling water. (Alternately, put the pot in the sink and pour the boiling water into it). Repeat this 3 times, looking for minute crazing on the glaze. It is also a good idea to do example what a customer would do. Take a completed piece out of the refrigerator, and put it into an already heated oven. Make sure the piece does not crack. • Ability to go from the dishwasher to the microwave. Metal overglazes should never go in the microwave, so it is a good idea to keep them off mugs and other dinnerware items Other than that, the problem with microwaves is if there is any water trapped inside the clay, it will expand in the microwave and cause the piece to crack. Low fire clays are porous by nature, and always problematic in the microwave. High fire clays should be fired to vitrification to keep water out. See our tip for more information about vitrification. Bring the water to a boil, then simmer for a few hours. This will allow the piece to absorb water. Then put the piece in the microwave. (The piece should be empty, and you should also put a separate mug of water in the microwave to protect the microwave.) Heat the microwave on high in 10 second increments. After each 10 seconds, carefully touch the piece to see if it is hot. If it has absorbed water, it will heat up. This tells you the piece is not dishwasher safe. To have your pieces tested for leaching of lead or other substances, make a small cup, fire and glaze it your normal way. Two labs are Alfred Analytical Laboratory in NY (607-478-8074), and Brandywine Science Center in PA (610-444-9850). This might all seem very complicated. In my opinion, if you make pots as a hobby, not in large quantities, and not pieces that will be used every day for many years, then for dinnerware I would just stay away from glazes with lead, cadmium, and barium as ingredients. If you want to use glazes with those ingredients, have a sample tested. And for anyone, I would try the home tests described above. What you learn may surprise you, and is a good next step in your growth as a potter. One should always assume that people will use your pots for things other than you intended. They may drink or eat out of things that are obviously not dinnerware (such as vases. In fact, many books publish glaze recipes which do not meet some or all of these tests. One exception is the recent book by John Hesselberth and Ron Roy called "Mastering Cone 6 Glazes." John and Ron have spent much time studying durability of glazes. They go into these issues in much more detail than I have here, including the chemistry behind it, and how to make your own glazes which are safe and durable. It is a particularly good book if you are firing in the Cone 5-6 range, but also an excellent book for understanding glazes in general. They also discuss glaze mixing, application, formulation, and troubleshooting, in addition to durability and testing. John and Ron note that they have tested many glazes published in popular books, and even some commercial glazes, and found that they often fail one or more of the tests above.
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