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Airplane Bathrooms Are Shrinking As Airlines Squeeze in More Seats

At 5-foot-8, Eddie Santos is about average size, but on a recent flight from Los Angeles to Washington, a trip to the plane's lavatory left him feeling like Gulliver in the land of Lilliputians.

It was a tight fit.

"I had to twist my shoulder just to get in," he said. "It was uncomfortable."

Flier Melody Arganda was able to squeeze inside, but she said the space was so narrow her thighs brushed against the walls.

"Absolutely ridiculous," hrumphed the retired teacher from Riverside, California. "If I were any bigger, I wouldn't have fit."

Flying has become a game of inches, with airlines trying to squeeze as many passengers as possible on planes. They have made seats smaller, shrunk legroom and now, as Santos and Arganda discovered on a recent cross-country flight, made the bathrooms so small an average-size person feels squeezed.


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On some of the newer planes flown by American, Delta and United airlines, the bathrooms in coach are just 24 inches wide. For comparison, that's roughly the width of the average dishwasher or the size of Kim Kardashian's waist.

By comparison, the average porta-potty is roughly 34 inches wide. Same with the stalls in the women's restrooms at Reagan National Airport.

According to the manufacturer, the new-style bathrooms free up enough space to fit six more passengers onboard.

Delta was the first to introduce the smaller bathrooms in 2014, but the shift gained more attention late last year when American began using new jets equipped with the tiny lavatories. United debuted theirs in June.

Joseph "Pep" Valdes, a parking executive from Los Angeles, who is 5-foot-10, described his experience trying to use the bathroom on a recent American flight to Washington.

"If you are one inch taller, I don't know how you'd get in there," he said. "I saw some big guys [on the flight] and wondered . . ."

Travelers and consumer groups have bemoaned the downsizing of personal space on planes for years, watching as the average seat, once 18 inches wide, shrank by an inch and a half, and the distance between rows went from an average of 35 inches to 31 inches - 28 inches on some airlines.

But bathrooms? Really?

"Given the trend line in the decreasing of personal space, this is just another instance of the airlines treating their customers as profit points, not as actual people," said John Breyault, a vice president of the National Consumers League. "I challenge any airline executive at any airline to have to change the diaper of a screaming infant in a two-foot-wide bathroom."

(Note: The tiny bathrooms are equipped with pull-down changing tables. But fitting an adult, a baby and a diaper bag in the space would require some manoeuvring.)

At 6-foot-1, Zach Guimond, a manufacturing engineer from Iowa has grown accustomed to being squeezed when he travels. But on a recent flight - he can't remember the model of plane - he found himself in a bathroom so tiny, he had to lean to one side to fit inside.

"Not only was there barely enough room to turn around, the ceiling was sloped, and I couldn't even stand up straight," he said. "It was pretty uncomfortable."

He pulled out his phone and scrolled to a selfie he had taken. His head is angled against one of the walls, a grimace on his face.

Shirley Sosin, a retiree from California, remembers the good old days of flying when "you could put our makeup on" in a plane bathroom. "Men could shave. Things have changed," she said.

But the reality is this: The nation's airspace can handle only so many flights per day, so airlines have done the next best thing - they have found ways to put more passengers on every flight. A few inches here and there can make a big difference to an airline's bottom line.

Gary Weissel, managing officer of Tronos Aviation Consulting, estimated that airlines like American could generate about US$400,000 (NZ$582,000) a year in additional revenue for each seat added. Weissel based his calculation on typical jet usage and the average fare.

Last fall, American told investors it could make an additional US $500 million in revenue through 2021 by revamping its 737-800 jets to fit 12 more passengers and its Airbus SE A321 planes to fit nine additional travelers.

According to SeatGuru.com, American's 737 MAX 8 has 172 seats - 12 more than the 737-800, which had 160. For those keeping track, that's two additional rows. United's 737-700 jets had 118 seats, but its newer 737-800V3 jets have 166. Translation: That is 48 more people competing for overhead storage.

It does not take an engineer to know that all that space for seats has to come from somewhere.

On its website, Rockwell Collins, the Iowa-based company that manufactures bathrooms for Boeing's 737, boasts that installing its Advanced Spacewell lavatories can free up space for six additional passengers.

All this downsizing comes as the average American's waistline is expanding.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the average American man weighs 196 pounds - nearly 30 pounds more than he did in the 1960s. The average American woman weighs 166 - nearly 19 pounds more than she did in the 1960s.

In addition, nearly 79 million Americans are obese - that is 35 percent of the population, and the number is projected to reach 50 percent by 2030.

But you do not have to be overweight to feel the squeeze when you fly.

There is no federal standard for bathroom size on single-aisle aircraft, so the decision is largely left to the airlines and manufacturers. However, aircraft with 60 or more seats that do not have an accessible bathroom for people with disabilities must provide an onboard wheelchair to provide access as long they have been given 48 hours notice. The chairs are designed to help disabled passengers get to the bathroom door - but not necessarily inside the lavatory.

Alison McAfee, a spokeswoman for Airlines for America, which represents some of the nation's largest carriers, counters that airlines have invested billions to upgrade their fleets and give travellers - at every price point - more options.

Indeed, airlines brag that today's planes are lighter and more fuel-efficient, with roomier overhead bins and WiFi connections so speedy that travellers may forget they are hurtling through the air 30,000 feet above the ground. Though in many cases, passengers have to pay extra to connect or even to use the overhead bins.

"In 2017 alone, airlines invested an estimated US$19.9 billion to enhance their product and customer experience, including newer larger aircraft, larger overhead bins and various amenities that customers want when they travel," McAfee said.

But what about the tiny bathrooms?

"The idea that airlines would intentionally downgrade the flying experience or undermine safety is a flawed premise," she said.

On a United flight from Houston and Orlando, Zach Honig, editor-at-large for ThePointsGuy.com, a travel-advice website, watched passengers as they emerged from the smaller lavatories.

"All of them seemed really surprised," he said. Not just by the size, he said, but by the sink, which was so tiny it was impossible to emerge without getting soaked. The bathrooms, Honig later wrote on his blog, were "shockingly bad."

Maddie King, a spokeswoman for United, said lavatories on the airline's newer 737s are the "industry standard." Joshua Freed, spokesman for American Airlines, said the company is "not unique and not alone" in lavatory size. Delta Air Lines declined to say how many of its planes have been equipped with the smaller bathrooms, but they do include jets that fly out of National.

All said they are not aware of passenger complaints about the bathrooms. However, earlier this year, flight attendants from American Airlines raised safety concerns about the smaller bathrooms with chief executive Doug Parker.

"We certainly hear about it from passengers," said Jeffrey Ewing, national safety and security chair for the Association of Professional Flight Attendants, which represents American's flight attendants. "The bathrooms are very small. The sinks are tiny. They are not very comfortable."

Flight attendants from other unions have also raised concerns.

"These 'space-saving' bathrooms have created accessibility issues for passengers of size and passengers with disabilities," said Taylor Garland, spokeswoman for the Association of Flight Attendants-CWA. "Depending on the airline's configuration, the aft bathroom doors have caused physical injuries to passengers and crew. We continue to press airlines to mitigate these issues and ensure accessibility for all passengers. But this issue deserves attention and needs to be addressed."

So how much have bathrooms shrunk? Airlines won't comment on specific dimensions, and manufacturers such as Boeing said the information is proprietary.

A spokeswoman for Rockwell Collins, the Iowa-based company that manufactures lavatories for the Boeing 737, said they, too, are barred from commenting on bathroom dimensions but directed a reporter to the company's website, which details the benefits of the lavatory options offered.

Its Advanced Spacewell lavatory frees "up to seven additional inches of cabin space." Airlines interested in installing the lavatories on existing aircraft could free up space for "an additional 6 passengers in certain configurations," the website notes.

The company indicated that the trend toward smaller lavatories is driven in part by the rise of low-cost carriers like Spirit and Allegiant that are catering to fliers who care more about price than comfort.

"As the industry continues its move toward a multitiered model of travel, so has the need for different lavatory options," said Pam Tvrdy-Cleary, a spokeswoman for Rockwell Collins.

Consumer groups, however, are fighting back. They argue that downsizing on planes - whether seats or bathrooms - isn't just a matter of comfort but also of safety.

The Flyers Rights Education Fund last year petitioned a federal appeals court to impose a moratorium that would stop airlines from reducing the size of seats. Judge Patricia Millett of the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit denied the request, but she did instruct the Federal Aviation Administration to explain why smaller seats are not a safety hazard. The FAA responded over the summer saying it is up to the airlines to determine the appropriate seat size, noting the issue is one of comfort, not safety.

As part of the FAA reauthorisation legislation passed in September, lawmakers directed the FAA to issue regulations that establish standards for minimum seat size. Whether that will lead to more comfortable seating, however, is unclear. Paul Hudson, president of Flyers Rights, the group that filed the petition, is concerned that the FAA will only reiterate its earlier position.

The US Department of Transportation's inspector general, however, has launched an audit that will look at whether changes in seat design may have an impact on evacuation procedures. The audit comes at the request of Rep. Peter DeFazio, D-Ore., who is likely to become the next chairman of the House Transportation Committee when Democrats take control of the chamber in January.

Weissel, the aviation consultant, said complaints about the bathrooms are unlikely to discourage airlines from trying to find new ways to add even more seats. There is too much revenue at stake.

Add to that this: The vast majority of the public flies so infrequently that people may not even realize the bathrooms have gotten smaller. Even if they do, they may not care, he said.

He may be right. Personal space may be shrinking, but the appetite for travel remains robust.

Airlines for America said it expects record numbers of people to travel this holiday season.

And officials with the Transportation Security Administration expect to screen more than 25 million passengers nationwide between now and Nov. 26 - a 5 percent increase over last year.

Breyault, of the National Consumers League, said he thinks the demand is tied to the economy rather than better service.

"We live in a big country, and people have to fly all the time because they don't really have a lot of great alternatives."

For some, upgraded wireless and roomier overhead bins may be enough. Honig said the WiFi on the flight was the best he has ever experienced, though he noted that it was not free. As for the bathroom, he figures there is only so much give. He is looking on the bright side.

After all, he said: "There's no way they can get any smaller unless they shrink the passenger."

- Washington Post

Airplane Bathrooms Are Shrinking As Airlines Squeeze in More Seats 1

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The Frenemy in the Mirror
I walked through my bedroom door with a pile of laundry in my arms, clean clothes destined for dresser drawers. On leaving the room, I realized that my 4-year-old daughter was standing in front of the full-length mirror.When we bought our house, we realized the previous owners must have been giants. The bathroom mirrors were high enough that I could only see my head floating up around the bottom of the medicine cabinet door. There were no other mirrors in the house, and that suited me just fine.Looking at my body in the mirror was not usually something I wanted to do. Not because I have an unusually horrific deformity that I can't face, but just because mirrors are a tool of the devil. You can either become bewitched by allowing yourself to feel validated and worthy because you like what you see -- or they can become instruments of delusional torture in those moments when you aren't feeling your best, your clothes feel awkward on your body and the unavoidable critical voice in your head narrates rude descriptions of your flaws.I noticed with a fair bit of envy when I had children that they are born with a complete lack of self-consciousness. Their bodies are completely perfect and wondrous as they learn to use each part, from the first hand squeezed into a fist to the ability to hold one's head upright. Their soul seems in alignment with their functioning body -- their emotions, intellect and physicality working in tandem without hints of discord or betrayal. Children love to run around naked and will beg to do so. And while they are very small, especially if you are breastfeeding, some of this freedom rubs off on you. The functioning of the body is in line with the purpose and beauty of the body as a mother exposes her breast to feed her child. It is an act that can allow a woman to behave as if there are no mirrors.The need to care for a tiny child requires open bathroom doors, exposed breasts and a lack of modesty. The very idea of privacy is met as a sign of betrayal, as evidenced by my youngest, who at the age of 1 could bust the bathroom door open with a mighty cry and run in, incensed that I had the audacity to shut him out for even a moment.So when we moved into the new house, it shouldn't have been surprising that the children were distressed by the lack of mirrors. They wanted to be able to see themselves -- to measure their growth, to make funny faces, to bang their open palms against their own reflections in amusement. So I capitulated, buying one very big mirror and hanging it in the master bedroom. And as I anticipated, the mirror became by turns my torturer and friend, reflecting my own insecurities or momentary approval. Most days I avoided it, just taking a quick glance to see if my shoes looked good with my clothes.Some days I would take a good, long look at my body. My body has served me well, conceiving and housing three healthy babies. However, I still can't quite get used to the deflation of my stomach, which during pregnancy was stretched so tight as it teemed with the mystery of new life. I'm not sure if I am disturbed by the emptiness of the flesh, which seems without purpose, or if I am mourning my experience of anticipation as I awaited the emergence of my babies.Or this. When I was 10, my mother stood in the kitchen with a wooden spoon in her hand and announced that I needed to go on a diet. That was the moment I became a woman. That was the moment I transitioned from being an unselfconscious child to becoming a woman aware of the need to be critical of, in opposition to and demanding of my body. Mirrors became measures, not of growth, but of my appeal to others. I must not offend. I must be a nice, pretty girl. I must be thin. And so began my battle with my body.My first child is a boy who has little interest in eating, and likes to parade through the house in his underwear with all of his bones showing through his skin. My second child is a girl, whose eyes are bigger than her stomach and who loves to move at all times, roller skating through the house, pausing to hula hoop or jumping from the couch. My third child, a boy, is sturdy and unnaturally strong, unafraid to climb the kitchen counters for a snack by the age of 1. When friends tell me my children look like me, I am thrilled. Doesn't every mother like to hear this? It is like some validation of the nine months and endless hours of labor it took to produce such perfect little beings. But when, one day, a friend said my daughter was so cute and that she had my body, I stopped dead in my tracks.If my daughter had my body, did that mean that she would have an adversarial relationship with her body? Or was it possible that she could retain that natural self-acceptance that children are born with? If I promised myself never to stand over her with a wooden spoon and tell her to go on a diet, would she be OK?I worry little about my boys' self-perception as it relates to their bodies. They are too busy telling poop jokes or climbing counters to care what anyone thinks of their bodies. But my daughter, who emerged from my womb beautiful, vibrant and perfect in every way... will she escape the tyranny of self-loathing that weaves itself into the lives of so many imperfectly beautiful women? I hope and I pray that she never finds self-judgment to be her frenemy.On that day I walked into my bedroom with an armload of laundry to find my then-4-year-old standing in front of the mirror in just her underwear, with her body at an angle to the mirror, half turned so that she could see both her face and her backside. There was a look in her eye that I recognized immediately -- the look of self-assessment.I wanted to drape a black sheet over the mirror to obscure her vision. I wanted to pile a cornucopia of luscious fruits on the kitchen table. I wanted to burn my wooden spoons and use the ashes to spell out the words "love your perfect body" on every wall of our house. I wanted to open every window and let the fresh breezes cleanse our hearts. But instead, I just kept walking, past her conversation with the mirror, and carried my own grief far away from her, so that she wouldn't see me seeing her. So that this first conversation she had in the mirror might be friendly, and so that I didn't bring my own discord to bear. She might have my body, but she has her own soul. I want her to love it in her own way. And I will do whatever I can, in a gentle way, to guide her to be strong, to be sure of herself, and to know what to do if she ever meets her frenemy in the mirror.An earlier version of this post appeared on The Manifest-Station Like Us On Facebook Follow Us On Twitter Contact HuffPost Parents Also on HuffPost:
In the Shadow of My Mother's Suicide
The following is excerpted and adapted from "Half in Love: Surviving the Legacy of Suicide," published by Counterpoint.In 1974, when I was 21 and a college senior, my mother committed suicide in the closed garage of our family home, after having tried many, many times before. As my sister and I chose which dress she would be buried in, I resolved never to seek the solution she had found to end her pain. Like so many others in the family, I was angry that she had deserted us, angry that after all the years of all four of us struggling with her depression, we had come to this conclusion. Even as I felt sorrow and relief, I wondered whether I would ever overcome so many intense feelings and forgive her.But right before I turned 45 -- the same age my mother had been when she died -- my world fractured in ways I could never have foreseen. It was December of 1997, and I found myself drawn into my own vortex of depression, desperate for relief from the interior pain that obliterated nearly every waking moment. I couldn't talk with those I loved about my grief or my despair -- not my husband, not my sister, and certainly not my two sons -- so afraid was I that by speaking about such things, I would make them even more real.One day simply followed another, and then another -- and then the nights came on. The air of the house was tinged sepia. There was no color, not even black and white, to anything. None of the furniture or the objects in a room had any defined edges. It was as if I were trying to live without my glasses. Everything was out of focus.I spent a lot of time crying by myself, even when it seemed as if there were nothing to cry about, and I was mortified every time the tears started again. I remembered my mother had cried just this way and I closed my eyes against the shame that I hadn't understood her better, that I had blamed her for giving up. I felt like a traitor.I had been hiding my depression fairly well -- following each day's routines -- but still it gnawed away in my gut like a wolf in a trap, and at last it gathered itself for the attack. At my younger son's bar mitzvah in October, I had gotten drunk in public, but no one seemed to notice anything strange, perhaps because I was keeping my drinking private. Alcohol helped keep me quiet, sedated, and isolated.For the first time in my life, I envied my mother the solution she had found to quell the pain of her depression. For the first time in my life, my emotions pushed aside all concern for the family who would remain if I joined my mother -- even though I, too, had once been part of such a family so abandoned. I knew well the agony of that rejection.My thoughts of suicide did not mean that I didn't care about these very important people in my life. It was more as if the pain that accompanied my depression had moved onto a new plain, and, in my confusion, it seemed to require a new and different sort of release.From my own experience as the daughter of a suicide, I knew intimately how many people -- especially family and friends -- think of this quintessential act of self-destruction as a self-indulgent, self-involved, selfish choice -- or even a temper tantrum that takes no one else into consideration. But suddenly I saw the reality of it: interior pain, urgent, could indeed pressure you to take your own life.What once I had tried so hard to avoid and push away with such determination for over forty years, suddenly seemed natural, and I ached to surrender to it. Finally I recognized exactly what I had inherited: the lust to sit in the driver's seat of death. It was surely significant that she, the celebrated poet, had often told me "never be a writer, Linda," but not once in her foreshortened life had she ever said, "never be a suicide."That night I had nothing planned. There was just the pain. Suicide simply came up from behind and took me in a bear hug.I ran a tub and got in, slowly, carefully, balancing my martini on the rim. A sharp paring knife lay beside it. Next to the knife stood two small brown bottles: Valium and Dalmane, prescribed for some other difficulty, some other time. Their labels were perilously out of date.For the first time in weeks, all at once, I felt peaceful.My husband would not return from his business trip until the following afternoon. My sons, Nathaniel and Gabe, were asleep, their beds distant in another part of our silent California ranch. I had given them, 13 and 14 now, a special child-like goodnight. I told them that I would see them at breakfast, just as I always did, and then I tucked them into bed. Tucked in -- what a lovely way to say goodbye: tight woolen corners and smooth sheets, melodies built around the promise of sweet dreams.Even as I lay in the tub, I did not consider what would happen if they should be the ones to discover me. Because they knew all about their grandmother's suicide, I had accordingly made, from time to time, promises about my life.Nathaniel, I promise you that I will never ...The thought of violating his trust was horrific and untenable. Why couldn't I feel, deeply, what a betrayal it would be Why, this time, did my love for my children not help me to push away the desire to die and to push away the desperation that had dogged me all my life, as it had so many times before This time I was numb. The urgency pressed in upon me and flushed every family face, every family voice, from my mind.I became a small child that night, a vulnerable daughter. My mother seemed right then to hover in the room, guiding me. Once this act was complete, I could never be abandoned again, neither by my husband's work-related absences, nor my children's growing independence, nor my sister's emotional distance, nor my father's inevitable death, nor the retreat of friends.I studied the thoroughfares of my wrist. A few veins looked promising. My index finger palpated, looking for the best candidate.Was this simply a desire to escape pain, or a biological imperative, or a role model I could not resist, or simply the voice in my head goading me on Perhaps every one of them.I picked up the knife.I did not ask why.I wondered only at what angle to draw the blade.After I finished, I passed out. But when I woke I was lying in a blanket of cold red water.Under the dark surface, my body was invisible. I tried to sit up and failed; I rolled sideways on one hip instead, my hand scrabbling against the floor tiles for the phone I thought I had put there.Frightened, I woke a friend. She used her second phone line to call the police secretly while continuing to soothe me. Eventually, the police pounded on the bathroom door and in an instant defeated the lock. Armed with holsters and guns and nightsticks, they hauled me up by the armpits. I struggled vaguely against being saved but they loaded me onto the gurney and strapped me down.It was only then, rushing on my back through the hall, that I thought clearly of my children and allowed horror to flood through me. At last. Too late.------For many years after my first suicide attempt, I did not believe that I would survive. Now, 12 years later, as I turn 57 years old, I can see how much of my strength and determination it took to break the cycle of self-destruction upon which I had been raised. But with the help of a family that strived to forgive and accept, with the benefit of excellent psychotherapy and the best of modern medications, I have stopped my own part in my family's battle with suicide. I did not abandon my children as I had been abandoned. I am a mother who lived, despite it all.I hope I have put behind me my mother's legacy, that old dance partnered with a death wish. I hope that my life never again becomes as filled with despair as it did when my husband divorced me. I hope that I will always be able to work hard at my therapy, no matter how difficult, and that I will always discipline myself to take the medications for my bipolar disorder -- despite their side effects. I hope that I will never again lose the love, however temporarily, of my family and friends. I hope that depression will never again eat me alive. And I hope that none of these wishes are only magical thinking.In September of 2009, after 11 years of divorced life, I remarried. No longer am I alone. I believe that I have succeeded in burying the legacy, for despite it all -- despite my own history and my mother's black magic -- I am once again at my desk beneath a wide window, where a scrap of melody from a wind chime somewhere in the distance rides the slipstream of clear air to encourage me. I remember what a friend once said: sometimes you cannot know which is harder -- when you feel you can't possibly go on anymore, or when you start to realize that you will.
A Girl's Best Friend Isn't for Sale (well, OK)
Kirsty is taking a long time brushing her hair, striking an indifferent pose to her friend's nagging, enjoying the privacy of staring into a mirror. Kirsty is sitting sideways, with her legs crossed, on the sandy steps at Federation Square; the mirror is in the lid of her make-up box, which she has set on top of the video camera's silver case.Her friend Laura stands a few steps down, holding the camera aloft in her palm; in the way her ancient relatives once hefted spears. For a while Laura's been saying things like "We have a lot to do" and "We're going run out of time" and "Aw, come on". Laura may as well be banging on a locked bathroom door.Suddenly, Kirsty moans in despair. Her hair is long and straight, very shiny, but she's brushed it so much she's mucked up the part on the side - and needs to start from scratch."Kirsty!" It comes out of Laura like a curse, then she flounces and looks at me.In between outbursts, she has been telling me their story. Kirsty and Laura - a year out of school and "best friends for years" - are making a video tour of the city. Laura plans to send copies to her pen pal in France and her grandparents in Brisbane. Kirsty plans to send copies to television producers; she "wants to be an actress or read the news or just be in commercials".Laura compiled the list of places they need to visit on the tour, wrote the script and will be doing the camera work. Kirsty is the on-screen personality but she doesn't like the script - a series of short and chatty descriptions of places such as Federation Square, the Town Hall, Parliament House, the Old Melbourne Gaol and so on."It's boring," she says, checking her lips and eyes in the mirror and suddenly smiling and ready to get on with it. "Well, come on." At this point Laura brings the conversation back to its original topic. "I suppose if you can buy a best friend on the internet, you can sell one too. How much do you think I'd get for Kirsty?" Now we are getting to the heart of the matter. I'd been wandering around, looking for a couple of "best friends". I wanted to know what a best friend was worth, in cash terms.A young fellow named Stuart Donald is probably sitting at his computer in Scotland at this moment, watching the eBay shopping website, where he is selling himself as best friend for a month to the highest bidder.Donald doesn't plan to hang out with his new best friend - no fireside ales and jolly tales. Instead, he's offering a modest package of emails, letters and text messages. Donald hasn't set a reserve price."It's just a stunt," says Laura."It's creepy," says Kirsty."I think I'll definitely sell you then," says Laura.So how much does Laura want for Kirsty?"I think I'd settle for a bottle of tequila." "Hey," says Kirsty, brightening, "that's what we could do. It wouldn't be so bad if it was just emails. You could have like a dozen (best friends) at the same time and just send them copies of the same emails." Suddenly Kirsty and Laura are riotous best friends again, making plans to sell each other off for shoes, clothes and make-up. It's all very giddy until Laura worries that Kirsty is serious about the idea."It's fun to think about," says Laura, sobering. "But you'd just be preying on all the sad cases." Kirsty makes a sad face to keep in step with her friend. "Yeah," she says. "There's a lot of them out there. But don't you think they'd get something out of it?"
Three Simple Things You Can Do to Avoid Getting Sick at Work
As it turns out, the best advice to stay healthy during cold and flu season is really pretty simple. It doesn't involvemega-dosingVitamin C orpopping mysterious anti-influenza supplements.And while avoiding people who are coughing and sneezing isa good idea, the infectious disease pros say that's also not enough.Instead, what it mostly comes down to isyour hands.Start by taking note of what you touch. Some common virusesspreadquickly via surfaces touched by multiple people, as shown in a now classic study of viral contamination by infectious disease specialist Charles Gerba and his team at the Univeristy of Arizona.The researchers contaminated two surfaces, a doorknob and a tabletop, with viral samples in an office building, hotel rooms and a healthcare facility. The virus they used was harmless to people but mimicked the contagiousness of the human norovirus (the dreaded "stomach flu" that causes diarrhea and vomiting). Throughout the day, the researchers took samples from surfaces in the buildings, including light switches, bed rails, tabletops, coffee-pot handles, doorknobs, phones and computer keyboards. Withinfour hours, 40 to 60% of the surfaces in the buildings were contaminated with the virus. In the office, "the first area contaminated was the coffee break room," Gerba reported.Norovirus is heartier outside the body than influenza, which sticks around on surfaces for up to 48 hours but loses much of its potency the longer its exposed. Butsince we can't control exposure to viral particles in the air (aside from maybe wearing a mask every day), managing what we touch is the best strategy available to us.Withthatin mind,here are three simple things office dwellers can do to stay healthier this cold and flu season.Wipe down surfaces.Infectionsin officescould be significantly reduced by wiping down common surfaces with a decent disinfectant. That includes door handles, refrigerator doors, coffee pots, microwave handles, common area phones and anything else you can think of that gets touched by more than one person throughout the day. As Gerba's study showed, this practice is especially important in the break room. Vigilance with disinfectantsreduces the spread of virusesby 80 to 99%, according to his research.Use a paper towel to open the bathroom door.Since bathroom door handles are touched all day long, infectious disease experts recommend using a paper towel to open them when you're exiting and then throw it away. Your office building can help out by placing a wastebasket near the door to encourage the "open and toss," resulting in fewer people transferring germs and less infectious misery. If your office building isn't accommodating, they'll get the message when a pile of paper towels keeps appearing near the door.Wash your hands (the right way).Arguably thesingle best way to avoid getting sickis by washing your hands.But as you've probably heard, mostof us aren't washing our hands the right way. Rather than just spritzing with a little warm water, use the disease-neutralizing five-step process:And if you see someone not washing their hands, make sure to throw them a glare.Afinal item worth mentioning is to stay homeif you're feeling sick, but since we can't control what other people do, that's not a perfect solution (and the idea, of course, is to avoid getting sick in the first place). Washing your hands and staying vigilant about what you touch is about as effective a strategy as we're going to get, and it's really not that hard to do.You can find David DiSalvo onTwitter,Facebook,Google Plus, and at his website,daviddisalvo.org.
Lochte Mess Monster': Press & Social Media Lay into US Swimmers After Fake Rio Hold Up
The world was shocked after what started out as a fun night out at the French Olympic house in Rio de Janeiro, ended with US Olympians Ryan Lochte, Gunnar Bentz, Jack Conger and James Feigen claiming they had been robbed at gun point.However, the problem was that the not-so-fantastic foursome was being quite liberal with the truth. As their story started to unravel, so did the lies. There had been no armed hold-up - just a confrontation with a gas station guard who took exception to the US sportsmen trashing a bathroom."Ryan Lochte is everything the world hates about Americans," read a headline from the New York Post, which laid into the second-most-decorated male Olympic swimmer of all-time."The Ugly American is alive and well in 2016 thanks to this dope. Thanks for that, Ryan. Now don't let the bathroom door hit you on the ass on your way to Palookaville," wrote the article's author Mike Vaccaro as the tirade against the 32-year-old continued.Meanwhile the New York Daily News was also holding no punches as it got stuck into Lochte, who has had to live in the shadow of the greatest Olympian of all-time, Michael Phelps, for much of his career.Its print edition had a photograph of Lochte alongside the headline 'The Lochte Mess Monster'.There has been little sympathy for Lochte on Twitter or "the three other swimmers" as they have become known on social media.While Lochte is back on US soil, two of the athletes involved in the incident in Rio de Janeiro, Bentz and Conger, faced chants of "liar, liar, liar" from a group Brazilians who were incensed at the fabricated allegations, as the pair left a police station in the city, footage from RT's video agency Ruptly showed.The two swimmers were questioned for four hours in regards to their allegations that they were the victims of an armed robbery. The pair arrivedback home on Fridayafter they were originally pulled from their flight to Miami by police on Wednesday for questioning.Renato Siqueira, a client at the same gas station where the four swimmers were involved in an altercation with a security guard after damaging a restroom, was scathing of their behavior."It's shameful how these 'gringos' come to Brazil thinking it's all a mess. They came here created trouble at the gas station, broke everything and left. One is already in the US," he told Ruptly. "As a Brazilian I hope the ones remaining here will be punished. They can't come here and think it's all a carnival."Feigan, who is the only member of the group still in Brazil, has been trying to do his bit to try and gain an ounce of goodwill by saying he will donate $11,000 to charity, which will also allow him to leave Brazil.Meanwhile, the US Olympic Committee (USOC) was left to issue an apology condemning the actions of the athletes."We apologize to our hosts in Rio and the people of Brazil for this distracting ordeal in the midst of what should rightly be a celebration of excellence," USOC chief Scott Blackmun said in a statement.The statement confirmed police accusations that the swimmers had vandalized the gas station's restroom after the group had stopped there while returning the Athletes Village.
Problems of Phased Array Ground Penetrating Radar Detection System
Although GPR has been widely used in hydrology, engineering, environment and other fields, many basic theoretical and technical problems have not been fundamentally solved, so the real advantages of GPR have not been brought into full play.The main problems existing in GPR technology include:1) The detection depth is shallow, and the contradiction between detection depth and resolution cannot be overcome. Increasing detection depth means sacrificing detection resolution;2) Multiple spread and other clutter jamming are serious, and there has been no good elimination method, which exists in radars at home and abroad;3) The influence of medium unevenness is great and can not be eliminated, resulting in difficulty in obtaining necessary velocity data;4) The data collection method of single sending and single receiving can provide limited information for post-processing and interpretation.The above problems are fatal defects for GPR. Although many geophysicists, electromagnetic experts and geophysical workers have done a lot of research and improvement on radar antenna design, signal processing and underground target imaging, these works are only partial modifications to the existing GPR system. In order to develop GPR technology, we must update our ideas and solve the problems from the fundamental principle.In view of this situation, experts proposed to develop a new GPR system - phased array GPR detection system in 1999.The basic research idea is to replace the current monopole radar antenna with the phased array radar antenna by using the relatively mature military phased array radar technology. Its purpose is to gather the electromagnetic wave into a narrow beam to transmit underground (or detection object) through the phased array technology, and receive the radar echo signal reflected by the target by using the multi-channel acquisition technology, The advanced data processing is carried out, and finally the three-dimensional image of the internal structure of the detection object is given.Development prospect of ground penetrating radar technologyIt is worth noting that at present, similar products have appeared in the market, such as RIS antenna array series of a company, but these products simply combine multiple monopole antennas into array antennas, which is essentially different from the idea of phased array ground penetrating radar.Because the phased array radar converges the electromagnetic wave into a narrow beam by controlling the phase delay of each channel, the energy is concentrated and the wave front diffusion is small. Therefore, the detection depth of the phased array radar is much larger under the condition of the same frequency and transmission power; On the contrary, under the same detection depth, phased array radar can improve the transmission power, so its resolution is much higher than the existing radar. In addition, since the spherical wave transmission is changed to beam transmission, the influence of medium heterogeneity is much smaller.Secondly, the phased array radar works in a continuous scanning mode and can scan in multiple directions. Therefore, the amount of information is much larger than that of the existing ground penetrating radar. For some special detection work, such as the quality detection of embankment cut-off wall, its role is unmatched by the existing ground penetrating radar (monopole antenna radar can not detect the joints, forks and other defects of embankment cut-off wall at all).Because phased array radar is a multi-channel received signal, multi-channel superposition can be carried out, just like the multiple coverage technology of reflection seismic exploration. Therefore, multiple interference can be greatly eliminated, which is difficult for existing radars. The antenna of high frequency (600mhz-1ghz) phased array ground penetrating radar can be made smaller, and its advantages are unmatched by the existing ground penetrating radar in shallow detection.At present, the system prototype has been completed. The carrier free pulse working system with center frequency of 900MHz is adopted, and the transmitting and receiving antennas are separated. 16 (4 × 4) Transmit channel forming, beam aggregation and scanning 16 (4) × 4) The channel receives the echo, and the optional scanning angles are - 36 °, - 24 °, - 12 °, 0 °, 12 °, 24 ° and 36 °.The software part of the system has rich data processing functions. The main conventional processing includes filtering, gain adjustment, static and dynamic correction, deconvolution, complex signal analysis, time-frequency analysis, etc., and multi-channel data processing, such as velocity analysis, superposition technology, coherence analysis technology, array signal processing, etc. And weak signal extraction, target automatic recognition and inversion interpretation under various clutter interference. A large number of field experiments on concrete detection in Yichang Three Gorges dam are carried out. The experimental results show that the spotlight scanning function of phased array radar has been realized, the penetration depth is greater than 1.5m and the resolution is higher than that of ordinary radar.Editing: hfy
Suggestions for Journaling, Bullet Notes, Activity, Wiki Like Application
So I am thinking of a possible answer to my own question:Build my own journal note entry app linked to a wiki.Zim Wiki uses a file based system for wiki. Maybe I could write app to export/sync entries in its files. Or WikkaWikki uses a MySQL (which is probably what I would use for journal entries anyway) so perhaps use same DB for Wiki and journal, with Journal app "doing right thing" to enter/sync Entries in wiki.Does this seem like a good approach?Or maybe I can customize a wiki with existing plugins - "All" I really need is good journaling / date feature, time tracking, checklist, and tags. Perhaps there already are plugins for this?Please comment if you have feedback on this idea.1. Circular tag wiki excerptsTag excerpts should at least try and give a concise definition as to the subject, and provided any usage guidance if necessary.Therefore, you need to make sure to address a set of key points:In general, excerpts should provide at least some guidance, even if it may appear to be ridiculously basic. Therefore, interpretation of the rejection reason is critical:That's like saying, [abs]: For questions about [abs] filaments. That should probably be rejected. This is better: [abs]: For questions about [abs] filaments - filaments that are used with blah blah printers, and are not toxic for use.Or even better: [abs]: For questions about [abs] filaments - filaments that are used with blah blah printers, and are not toxic for use. Not to be confused with [pla] filaments. Do not use this tag if your question does not concern this filament specifically. Obviously, I have no idea if abs is even a thing. Anyways, I hope this helps :)2. Why is this answer a community wiki?Apparently the answer under scrutiny was made CW because it drew on an answer from another Stack site, and the answerer wanted to share it without being associated with it for good or for ill.But community wiki is not a tool for reputation denial (or for dodging the repercussions of questionable-quality answers) and practically speaking I see no difference between quoting a different Stack and quoting a blog or a book. We would never expect someone to eschew rep for quoting a blog or a book. The answerer went to the trouble of tracking down the information and sharing it; why should not rep gains should reflect that?The moderation team is under no obligation to revert the CW in this case, nor are they obligated to leave it be, but I would lean toward reverting it myself, for reasons which follow.We've talked about posting answers from other sites, and it's pretty clear this is not cheese.Community wiki used to be massively overused. Changes to the editing system rendered its original purpose largely moot, and there's now a lot of confusion about CW's role in the Stack mechanics. These days there are three basic reasons to use CW:I do not see this particular answer needing CW to make it "easier to edit and maintain by a wider group of users," so I do not see any reason for it to be a community wiki. Community wiki is a tool with a specific set of uses, and CW rollbacks are left to mod discretion. One of the responsibilities of our moderators is to help the community use the right tools for the job at hand.As for the answer itself--it's not very good by lit.se standards, because it was written for a different site with different priorities. And the question itself is under a tag whose implementation is still being debated, so quality there is... in flux, I suppose we could say. We need to bring in our own expertise and tailor the answer to meet the expectations of our own Stack.3. Need to Change Edit Approval Limits for Tag Wiki EditorsI just upped it from 3 to 5. Hopefully this alleviates the issue a bit. If we still notice a pattern of users being blocked we can look at adjusting further4. Difference between Wiki Library and Document LibraryYes there is difference, Below might be helpful to understand.Document library can contains documents, it can be any document like office documetnts doc,xls,ppt, js, css, jpg, png etc...any file extension you can think of. Main purpose of document library is to store documents. wiki library is a kind of document library which contains wiki pages, Wiki pages are html pages with rich text editing capabilities so that users can create pages using Rich Text Editor without knowing html in detail. So when wiki library template is selected it comes with some default columns created based on content type, this columns are useful to create wiki page. Making changes and edits in a wiki page is incredibly easy. Just click on the edit button (at the top of the page) and immediately the page appears as an editor's version of the page. You can then make edits straight away and simply hit save. The page will instantly be up and running with your changes in place.
How Many NCAA Football Bowls Are There?
About 8 I think1. where can i get ncaa football 10 rosters with names?For the last two years I got mine from "Pastapadre". From what i can tell they are really pretty accurate. Give it a shot2. where can I watch NCAA football games for free?...?Try channelsurfing.net. They pick up a lot of justin.tv stuff, and they have loads of ncaa football games, free, no spam, etc. I watch all the time with no problems3. Can you download a team on NCAA Football 10's Team Builder using a flash drive?Why would you want to do that? Build your own team. Do not take the wussy way out.4. NCAA Football 13 Heisman Challenge 3 Player Pack?The exclusive Heisman Challenge 3-Player Pack including Mark Ingram, Tim Tebow and Matt Leinart. See if you can match the career accomplishments of these former Heisman trophy winners in the all new Heisman Challenge Mode. Its come with your ordered game copy5. What ncaa football team is your favorite one?Oklahoma SOONERS!6. I want to do a dynasty in NCAA Football 14 what team should I use (I want it to be a challenge like a weaker)?Vanderbilt, they are in a great conference and are already headed in the right direction as far as getting better and it will be a challenge because you will be in the SEC7. does ncaa football deserve a playoffs instead of bowl games being based off of BCS rankings?Whether or not the NCAA deserves a playoff does not matter. They do not want one so they do not have one. Frankly, the national championship playoff debate is a joke. This is something created by sportswriters and tolkshow hosts for the sole benefit of sportswriters and talkshow hosts. The NCAA does not recognize a national champion of the FBS so any discussion about who should or should not be the champion is pointless bloviating. Win your conference. Beat your rivals. Go to a bowl game. Those are the only things that matter in college football.8. What was determining the NCAA football title like in pre-BCS years?Hawaii, is not a very reliable team, yet might desire to win the Sugar Bowl in simple terms as surely as Georgia as a results of fact their offense constantly performs like its at the back of and it wears down the protection whilst they might desire to conceal the whole field. The unfold offense is the excellent offense in college soccer. It supplies much less gifted communities liek Hawaii and Illinois a gamble to beat far extra gifted communities. that's alsovery risky, that's why some exceptionally ranked communities dont run it. Hawaii surely did no longer deserve a identify shot in simple terms as a results of fact Boise State gained The Fiesta Bowl. Boise beat a BCS convention team who complete 10-4(Oregon State who beat USC and Hawaii in Hawaii) Hawaii has no high quality wins and does not deserve a NT shot. ending undefeated might desire to get you a BCS sport nevertheless9. NCAA Football 2009-What Defense to run online?Usually the defense package that comes with the team you are using as the best combo of players are on the field10. Which Championship/Playoff Picture needs more work....the NFL or NCAA Football?everybody keeps blaming the computers, but the computers are pretty much the only good part about the BCS, it only counts as 1/3 anyways. another 1/3 is coaches, former players, former athletic directors and people like that, the other third is the media. a lot of voters admitted to not even watching a utah game until they played alabama, how messed up is that. so lets put the blame where it really belongs, the stupid voters, who do not educate themselves about what or who they vote for11. could an NCAA football team beat a weak pro team?No-NCAA teams always have weak links and for the most part are BOYS.NFL teams have chosen the best of the best,and are MEN12. What teams rush the ball the most in ncaa football?its either navy or army one of them thats pretty much all they do13. What D1-AA teams are in NCAA Football 08?Usually they are. Just check out some of the SEC teams schedules. You find a lot of them there. Looks like the truth hurts down there!
What Is the Name of a Horror Movie with an Eye Falling in a Cocktail Glass?
The Haunting I vaguely remember some kind of eye injury in the movie.• Other Related Knowledge ofa cocktail glass— — — — — —POLL: Can you taste my NU5?you can sip mine from a straw ill get it into a cocktail glass for you.— — — — — —What food to serve in cocktail glasses?Take a tall shot glass and put a fresh/raw oyster in it along with a shot of ice cold Vodka (Absolut, Stoli) and add a dash of hot sauce, Worchesteshire and lemon wedge. Takes the slider to the next level.— — — — — —What are the best cocktail drinks to make and serve for the holidays?PEPPERMINT TWIST Peppermint Schnapps 1 oz. Kahlua 1 oz. Brown Crème de Cacao Directions: Fill a shaker half-full with ice cubes Pour all ingredients into shaker and shake well Strain drink into a cocktail glass and serve SCOTH HOLIDAY SOUR Ingredients: 1 ½ oz. Scotch 1 oz. cherry brandy ½ oz. sweet vermouth 1 oz. lemon juice 1 lemon slice Directions: In a shaker, shake all ingredients—except lemon slice—with ice Strain into an old-fashioned glass over ice cubes Add lemon slice HOLIDAY PUNCH Ingredients: 2-48 oz. cans pineapple juice 1-40 oz. bottle cranberry juice 2-750 milliliter bottles soda water 1 liter strawberry, raspberry or lime sherbet (Optional) 1 ½ oz. vodka Directions: Mix juices in a punch bowl Pour in soda water Top with scoops of sherbet If desired, add 1 ½ oz. vodka for an individual cocktail— — — — — —What are some good drink combinations?Tequilini (Original) Here is a good strong one that I like for starting the weekend, you should try it Ingredients: 2 1/2 oz Casa Noble Tequila Crystal Few Drops of Dry Vermouth Þ oz Fresh Lime Juice Mixing instructions: Shake ingredients in mixing glass with ice, then strain into a cocktail glass— — — — — —What's your favorite cocktail? How's it made?Try this, its great! Green Apple Tequini Ingredients: 2 oz. Casa Noble Crystal (Silver) 1 oz. Apple SchnappsSplash of Midori Squeeze of lime juice, fresh Mixing instructions: Shake ingredients in mixing glass with ice, then strain into a cocktail glass. Slice of Green Apple for garnish.— — — — — —If I only buy one style of cocktail glass for my new cocktail-making learning, which should it be? Which is the most versatile/useful?The most useful is a rocks or Old-Fashioned glass, for drinks with ice. However, if you also want drinks up with no ice, you may wish to also get coupes, which have replaced the traditional Martini glasses ud83cudf78— — — — — —info about bar and drinking please?In the UK i would say that you could get a pina colada in cocktail bars and some clubs, you would not get 1 in your local pub. I would imagine that someone who had never tried alcohol would get a warm fuzzy feeling from a pina colada but not be paraletic drunk. As for the glass id simply call it a cocktail glass.— — — — — —What would make the bottom of my cocktail glass develop a fractured pattern like this?Your instincts are right -- this is indeed crystallisation. Your original cocktail was a solution of lots of non-volatile components (sugar, Splenda, citric acid from the lemon juice, and many many other things...) in some rather more volatile solvents (ethanol and water). Only a limited amount of any of the non-volatile compounds can dissolve in a given volume of solution. So as the volatile compounds evaporated, your solution gradually became saturated, then a little super-saturated, and then finally the non-volatile components started to crystallise out in the patterns you show.In general slow evaporation of a solvent is quite a common method of crystal growth, e. g. , for X-ray diffraction studies.— — — — — —OK, its the last day of mankind, and you can have one mixed drink/cocktail, what would it be?Tequilini Ingredients: 2 1/2 oz Casa Noble Tequila Crystal Few Drops of Dry Vermouth 1/2 oz Fresh Lime Juice Mixing instructions: Shake ingredients in mixing glass with ice, then strain into a cocktail glass.— — — — — —how do you make a frozen bikini cocktail?well firstly buy a bikini freeze it and then add it to a cocktail glass and add required bverages which i dont know what they are— — — — — —Drink Recipe?'?????????There are a lot of them, any of these sound right? Ingredients: 1 1/4 oz Creme de Banane 1 1/4 oz Creme de Cacao Fill with Milk Mixing instructions: Fill Glass with ice. Add Creme de Banane to glass. Add Creme de Cacao to glass. Fill glass with milk. Ingredients: 1 oz Creme de Banane 1/2 oz Dark Creme de Cacao Fill with Cream Mixing instructions: Pour all ingredients over ice. Garnish with slice of banana. Ingredients: 1 oz Light rum 1 oz Creme de Banane 1 1/2 oz Cream 1 dash Grenadine 1 slice Banana Nutmeg Mixing instructions: Shake rum, creme de banana, cream, and grenadine with crushed ice and strain into a cocktail glass. Decorate with the banana slice, sprinkle nutmeg on top, and serve. Ingredients: 1 oz Malibu rum 1 oz Banana liqueur fill with Pineapple juice Mixing instructions: This drink can be mixed with ice added, or put into a blender with ice, to be crushed. Ingredients: 1 part Banana liqueur 1 part Creme de Cacao 1 part Vodka 1 part Half-and-half Mixing instructions: Mix in a shaker with ice then strain.
Automotive Backup Camera Systems, Backup Hub
rsync can be somewhat painful if you have a very large number of files - especially if your rsync version is lower than 3. On the other hand: if you use tar, you would generate a very big resulting tar-file (unless the data may be compressed a lot). Personally, I would look at rdiff-backup, but make sure that you test your restore situation: rdiff-backup can be very memory demanding when restoring.1. Backup files being created in KubuntuIt seems you forgot to ask the question :) I will assume the question is "how do I disable creation of backup files in Kate"The answer is: go to Settings - Configure Kate - Editor Component - Open/Save - Advanced and untick "Backup on Save" for Local Files and Remote Files. Then click OK2. Ubuntu 10.10 full backupThe problem is not just re-installing Ubuntu it is also all the peripheral programs that I have on my HD. Some take much effort and time to reinstall, setting up configuration files etc. WE really do need a one-button HD back up.. I would like to do this onto a USB HD ..can it be so hard, Apple have it!!..? ron..Themotorman3. GPO backup failsYou may have to troubleshoot a little further. Are you able to backup other GPOs? Did you try using an alternative admin account? Can you create a test one and back that up? If you can, then I would check permission on the previous GPO where you are receiving the error. There is a powershell command you can use:Backup-Gpo -Name MYGPO -Path C:GpoBackup -Comment "Backup-08-21-14".4. rsync --backup-dir not getting changed data - instead it is going to the original backup locationI suppose the options -b --backup-dir do not act as you hope. You can try to use a different option --link-dest instead. Your command line should be similar to the following What is the meaning? You are telling to rsync to compare the files in /scripts/source/ (the new ones) with the ones in /scripts/diff/ (that is empty) and in the additional directory /scripts/full/ (That is the one of your backup).Notes:5. Backup internals - What happens when a backup job is running - in terms of locking and performance overhead in SQL Server?Basically, SQL Server does a dirty copy of all pages on disk. Those pages are likely inconsistent if there is concurrent activity or if there previously way non-checkpointed activity.Then, SQL Server also copies the necessary part of the transaction log that is needed to bring the out of date pages to the latest version and make everything consistent on restore. I can not speak to the multi-threadedness of the backup operation. I expect it to be parallelized. How else could you back up a 10TB database on a 10GB/sec IO subsystem?6. amt .22 backup jam problem?Its the nature of the gun. Try this, and it will sound weird. Clean the gun, and then try to feel the feed ramp for burrs. If you can feel some, use a dremmel tool, and a mild abrasive for polishing metal, and a cloth wheel, to polish it smooth. To feel the burrs best, use your tongue. It is more sensitive than your fingers. This should resolve the problem, or at least be all that you can do. If it does not resolve the problem, you can put the gun on your desk as a real cool paper weight, as that it is truly only reliable for that. Bringing it to a gunsmith is an option, but they often will charge more to work the ramp, throat, and barrel than the gun is worth. Go buy a small Ruger SP101 in .357 if you want a back up. Good Luck.7. How to backup / partition before rooting?Those on Android 6 can try the instructions that I posted here, starting at step 5. I think this will work without root, but I have not tried. You will need 6 if you are running stock because some of these commands require tools only included in Toybox. See also Ryan Conrad's great answer, based on this xda-developers guide, also linked by Firelord above8. Ramifications of Deleting Transaction Log BackupSo order of operation:If this is correct then you will be fine. As long as the LSN or chain of (backup) events since the last full backup is not broken you should have no issues with recovery
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