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Shop Best Aluminum Sliding Patio Door in Digah House Company

Shop Best Aluminum Sliding Patio Door in Digah House Company

2021-09-10
Digah Company
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Do You Need a Graphics Card Or Not?
Do You Need a Graphics Card Or Not?
So many of you who are reading this will probably understand if you want to build gaming PC, you must but compatible parts. Most of the time the reason is that we do not know what should I say on my video-CV and why?What one should remember in a video-CV is that it should always be complementary to your regular CV and cover letter. In example, if you are talking about organizational skills, your background of course should not be a total mess. Its a good idea to video close to a video as well, that way the lighting is going to be as good as possible. If you like a very clean smooth pussy slit, juicy tits and sexy tan lines you will love this teen babe. His sexy girlfriend sucks his cock and masturbates herself with one hand at the same time. So rather than tracking down a copy of one of the Ballers games, I bought a copy of this from a sketchy website, and it actually worked!So now I am doing crazy dunks and unlocking legends and having a quality time with this.What is a graphics card? So many of you who are reading this will probably understand if you want to build gaming PC, you must but compatible parts. Well, to receive a true gaming experience, you need a graphics card. This is because a crucial advantage named FPS (frames per second) will make you game outlook seem very fluent rather than choppy. A graphics card: How do graphic cards work? A graphics card works by following the CPU. The CPU will send information about the image or video to the graphics card and the graphics card will find its smallest pixels to then display the required image on the monitor - this will show up as a very clear image. List of Quite Good Graphics Cards - 60FPS All of the above can easily run at 120 FPS, possible more, but it is not necessary as it will simply cause your PC to overheat for no need. Best Graphics cards for under 200 Pounds All of the above will be capable of around 80 FPS which is more than enough for a great gaming experience, but If still too much, whichever graphic cards you go for, it should be at least 60 FPS, otherwise it can become to choppy. Why you should think about getting a PC? Before I end of this article, I will finish off with the last real question, why should I get a PC and why should I build it? I will answer the first question first. You should get a PC for a couple of reasons; a PC will always deliver good FPS and high resolution compared to a laptop. Furthermore, if you are a gamer like me, you are quite likely to eventually get an urge to buy a pc. This is because as you get into gaming, the urge for getter equipment to have more fun becomes undeniable. Finally, if you were to get a PC, it would help with your decor, especially if you were to receive an RGB PC (RGB meaning Red Green Blue, essentially light up colours - image above). Next, why should you build your own PC. Well, in my opinion, there are a couple of reasons to build your PC. Firstly, you will have the satisfaction of knowing you are using a machine you built. Next you will understand how different parts work, so in later stages, when you want to update your PC, you will know which parts to look for and how to install them. Finally, if you were to build a custom PC, you can customise each individual part to how you want, meaning the PC would be able to fulfil your needs. This is my first article. I hope you enjoyed and I will see you on the next article...Video-CV, what is it and should I do it?Want to use videos to your advantage in job hunting - feeling nervous already? A lot of us start feeling nervous, when we need to start recording a video-CV. Most of the time the reason is that we do not know what should I say on my video-CV and why?What one should remember in a video-CV is that it should always be complementary to your regular CV and cover letter. A video-CV is not there to be used instead of a CV. What it gives you is a nice way to introduce yourself in a more informal way, you are able to open up some work experiences in more detail and show your personality.How to ensure you get the best video-CV possible?Have a clear vision!Make sure you know what you want to say. A good idea is to write down keywords of what you want to say. What are those things that really matter in that position that you are applying to. What job duties you would want to highlight in your video-CV? Is there any specific skill that is very important in that job that you are applying to?2. Keep it short & sweet!Like most good things, a video-CV too comes in a small package. A good rule of thumb is that a video-CV should fall around 2 minutes or shorter. That way your video will automatically focus on a few things and you make sure you are talking about those things that really matter.3. Clean up and let the sun shine in!Make sure your surroundings reflects the best parts of you. So your background compliments the message you are trying to reflect. In example, if you are talking about organizational skills, your background of course should not be a total mess. Its a good idea to video close to a video as well, that way the lighting is going to be as good as possible. Since usually natural light is the most flattering type of light.4. Leave them wanting more!A good hook makes it more likely to get a call back. Either ask for an interview, make sure to let them know how to get in touch with you. Tell them when you are calling them regarding that position or come up with you'r own hook to catch the job of your dreams.Of course there's plenty more tips and ways to make sure your video-CV stands out. These four already make sure, you have done the groundwork on your video-CV well enough. Now all there is to do is either grab your smartphone, use the webcam on your laptop or use a camera to start recording! We at Anakom wish you a fantastic time recording your video-CV and good luck in grabbing that job that you want!Yay Hoorah; I Went and Made a Video TodayI have to admit to being a tad resistant to Dr Mehmet Yildiz's exhortation that we writers and editors consider making a video to add to the Illumination YouTube Channel.I have made just a couple of videos for either school or for work and I can not say that I have quite caught the video bug. But I finally succumbed to peer pressure today and made my first Illumination video. Initially I wanted to do a sort of "sketch along" piece where I draw while I talk. I still want to do something like that, but my suspicion is that it is a lot like walking and chewing gum, and I will have to practice a bit before I go public with any sort of stunt like that.Instead I figured I could channel some of my process-oriented talents into a video that walks folks through the method I take when working through the draft submissions for publication in Illumination. I figured it might be good for writers that wanted to take a little peek behind the curtain, and also might be mildly informative for new editors to just go over the process. We have had a few new editors come on lately and of course their first question (and it was mine too) is, "What do I do?"It's pretty simple once you do it a time or two but might seem a little foreign at first.It is not flashy. I did not cut in or out, simply displayed my desktop and did a voiceover. In my many years in the fire service I was told numerous times that I have a "good radio voice". Personally, I think I sound a little strange, and wo not blame you if you think the same.That said, I do think there are some nuances that get captured much better even with a voiceover and a screenshot, so I will leave it to you to see if you agree. Or not. For you viewing and listening pleasure, I present:If you liked this article, you may also like:If I Was not a Writer - I Would Be a Fighter PilotOr maybe a firefighter. Oh wait, I did that alreadymedium.comDo not Read This StorySeriously; it is just a self-indulgent spin off from another piecemedium.comIf Our Age is Really Just a Number, Why Ca not we Change It?One man's lawsuit poses a very interesting ideamedium. comTimothy Key spent over 26 years in the fire service as a firefighter/paramedic and various fire chief management roles. He firmly believes that bad managers destroy more than companies, and good managers create a passion that is contagious. Compassion, grace and gratitude drive the world; or at least they should. Follow me on Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter, and join the mail listSearch Results for "Sweaty Anal" - Naked GirlsThis week, I have a group of hot teen girls which know how to have fun! Do not miss this one over the top submission that will surely satisfy all real teen porn lovers. After training at the tracks all morning, these three sexy girls are beat! Good thing one of the girl's boyfriends agreed to pick them up after track practice. It's a good thing the girlfriend brought her video camera along to film their practice, because now that they are heading back home, the two girls in the backseat start kissing and making out, and you want to get shit like that on video! Getting filmed gets them, even friskier and the gym clothe start coming off. These two teens are so hot! The brunette friend has her top pulled over her big nice tits and her panties and shorts dangling around her knees as the redhead friend sucks on her puffy nipples! It's a long ride home and the girls got plenty time to have fun in the backseat. The redhead showers the brunette's naked, sweaty body with kisses and spreads her legs so she can rub and lick her teen twat! She's finger fucking that tight clam and you can see the cars passing by kinda slowing down to get a glimpse! This girl has incredible boobs and flawless pussy. If you like a very clean smooth pussy slit, juicy tits and sexy tan lines you will love this teen babe. Who would not want to tongue-fuck that beautiful bald pussy? The brunette kisses the redhead so she can taste her pussy on her tongue and lips, spreading her legs and pussy lips so she can return the favor, eating her friend out and masturbating her in the backseat! These naked teens lick their pink pussies like there's no tomorrow. After the girls finish their thing, it's time for the girlfriend in the front seat, who has her panties drenched by now, and her boyfriend to have some fun! They are so turned on by the lesbian show in the backseat of their car. Her boyfriend almost came his pants. They pull over and his girlfriend pulls down her panties and begins to play with her clit for him. She rubs her wet muff for him and leans over the driver seat so she can suck hard on his throbbing cock and lick his big balls. His sexy girlfriend sucks his cock and masturbates herself with one hand at the same time. What could be better than a blowjob with mouthful of cum ending? Her boyfriend busts a nut in her mouth, it is so awesome! DON'T MISS the full length sextape here:Video Game Nostalgia: PS2 games you should playAhh 2004 was a simpler time. I think a lot of us have been craving nostalgic experiences and I've mainly looked to gaming for my nostalgia. My first ever game system was the PS2 and I miss the days of just being satisfied with what I could get. Now I need realism and open worlds and well written stories and just a ton of pointless garbage frankly. I love that we are able to have expansive games like Red Dead Redemption 2 or realistic sports simulations like Madden 20, but sometimes I just want a fun game. So here are some of the PS2 games that I have revisited or at least hope to revisit in quarantine.NFL Street 2So this game is my inspiration for the post and also just completely bulletproof. Like any good game it looks way worse than you remember but the gameplay is still rock solid. I play more madden than majority of the population of the world so getting an arcade-y pallet cleanser has been great.NBA Street Vol. 2My shameful confession for the day is that this is not a game I played when I was young. I remember going to Target when I was young and being allowed to get a discounted game and I walked away with NBA Ballers that day. Which I loved those games but I do not have them anymore. So rather than tracking down a copy of one of the Ballers games, I bought a copy of this from a sketchy website, and it actually worked!So now I am doing crazy dunks and unlocking legends and having a quality time with this. The soundtrack bumps, and the game is another just pure fun type of game, so no complaints here.Tony Hawk American WastelandThis is one of my top draft picks for "Game that probably aged horribly." I was a sucker for Tony Hawk games though. All I remember is that it was a standard Tony Hawk game with a pretty ludicrous story so I would love to see what it is like now.GTA Vice CitySo this is a less shameful admission that I never played this game. I was 4 when it came out so lets just say it was not on my radar. However, now that I have the PS2 Slim up and running I plan to boot this up because there is a copy that one of my brothers had back in the day. Also Ray Liotta is the main character and I just re-watched Goodfellas so I am in the mood. I will finish my Ray Liotta marathon with Marriage Story and some Chantix commercials after I try out Vice City.
Introduction to Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets1
Introduction to Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets1
As one of the most popular products in Empery, Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets wins increasing popularity. It is developed based on Plywood. Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets is carefully designed by skilled designers. It can meet the more and more complicated requirements from the market. Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets is produced with cutting-edge UV kitchen cabinet technology. Owing to UV kitchen cabinet, it offers a stunning blend of features such as better physical and chemical properties. Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets has already been used in a wide variety of applications like home, kitchen. The strict quality inspection ensures Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets meets ISO. The product is covered by a -year warranty. Customized Different Designs of Melamine Kitchen Cabinets also can be customized. View our full line of products at http://www.digahousing.com/kitchen-cabinets-seriesEmpery leads the kitchen cabinets,wardrobes,door and windows manufacturing industry industry. We have established our competitive advantages over the past 15 years. Our clients are throughout the world, you can find them in worldwide. Empery covers a wide range of product series including Kitchen Cabinets Series. Digah steel door series has the characteristics of anti-deformation and moisture proof. Customized aluminium doors by Digah are highly recognized by customers. Digah products are widely applied in many industries like families, hotels, companies,etc.It is the everlasting goal for Empery to pursue 'Listen and learn from other people.'. For more information, please check http://www.digahousing.com/
Misunderstanding Analysis of Electronic Load in LED Measurement
Misunderstanding Analysis of Electronic Load in LED Measurement
To improve the test efficiency of LED power supply, the quickest and easiest way is to select the appropriate electronic load. If the knowledge of electronic load is not familiar enough, or the proficiency is not enough, it will even cause the confidence of test results to decline, which will affect the quality of products and even cause accidents. This article mainly describes the principle of electronic load CV, and introduces some misunderstandings in LED power supply test.The CV mode load of electronic load is the basis of LED power supply test. CV is a constant voltage, but the load is only a current loaded device, which cannot provide a constant voltage by itself. Therefore, the so-called CV only serves the change of the output current of the LED power supply through the voltage negative feedback circuit, so as to balance the charge on the LED output capacitor, so as to achieve the purpose of constant voltage. Therefore, there are two core factors determining CV accuracy:Load bandwidthOutput capacitance of LED power supplyWhen the ripple frequency of the output current of the LED power supply is very high, if the load bandwidth is insufficient, it will not be able to servo the current change, resulting in oscillation. When the oscillation occurs, the load input voltage changes sharply, and the LED output capacitor will be charged and discharged frequently with large current. At this time, the detected electric ripple will be much larger than the actual current ripple when the LED power supply works stably.When the load bandwidth is insufficient, if the output capacitance of the LED power supply is large enough, the oscillation amplitude can also be controlled within an acceptable range. Unfortunately, the price competition of the LED power supply is very fierce, and the output capacitance capacity is generally insufficient. Therefore, testing the LED power supply requires very strict load bandwidth.The manufacturer will not directly mark the bandwidth index of the load, but can only refer to another index: the rise time of full-scale current. Obviously, the smaller the rise time of full-scale current, the higher the bandwidth of the load. The higher the load bandwidth, the lower the requirements for the output capacitance of the LED power supply. Generally speaking, the load with 10us full-scale current rise time can meet the test needs of most LED power supplies. However, theoretically, any load can vibrate in CV mode. In this case, when the LED output capacitance remains unchanged, the higher the load bandwidth, the smaller the oscillation amplitude, The higher the confidence of the test results, therefore, when using the electronic load for test, the user must pay close attention to the change of load input voltage ripple VPP. Once it exceeds the range, the whole test results will no longer be credible. This is very important and the user must keep in mind.In CV mode, the voltage is constant, and the current ripple is usually very large. In order to improve the test efficiency, the data refresh frequency is often high, so the data jump is very large. Many users use this to determine whether the load is suitable for LED test. In fact, this is a very serious misunderstanding. Whether the data is stable or not is very easy to realize, It only needs to increase the time measurement of data filtering. For a very short low-end electronic load, because the measurement accuracy is low, it has to filter on a large time scale, but it is a blessing in disguise, making the data seem more stable. In fact, this is an illusion. In order to achieve accurate measurement, the fundamental method can only be to improve the sampling rate without increasing the sampling rate. In this way, the confidence of measurement results is very low, which may lead to serious quality accidents.Based on the above analysis, LED power supply test has strict requirements for load, mainly including the following points:The rise time of full-scale current is the fundamental to ensure accurate load. The lower the value, the better;The data sampling rate is the fundamental to ensure accurate measurement. The higher the value, the better;VPP real-time display is the basis for judging whether the measured data is credible;The filter speed adjustment function is a small means to obtain stable current data;Finally, please note that there are some loads on the market, which are called special electronic loads for LED power supply test. In fact, they are transformed from general electronic loads, and they are generally refitted from electronic loads whose bandwidth and sampling rate do not meet the test requirements. They do not improve their bandwidth, because bandwidth technology is the core technology of the load and is closely related to the cost, It is difficult to improve. It is often improved through three ways to make the current data more stable, but also more unreliable.The simplest way is to increase the filtering strength and force the data to be stable. Simple use of this method can easily lead to misjudgment and quality accidents.Adjust the voltage feedback loop to strongly filter the voltage feedback signal to reduce the amplitude of current oscillation. This method goes the opposite way, further reducing the load bandwidth, so that the situation of no oscillation and large oscillation become smaller oscillation.By increasing the capacitance inside the load, this method can suppress the occurrence or amplitude of oscillation, but the measured current ripple will be seriously smaller than the actual ripple, but it is very helpful to test the DC working point. However, because the rated working voltage of the load is generally high, the price and size of high-voltage capacitor are very serious problems, so it is difficult to increase to the ideal situation, and it is often used in combination with the second method. Another problem is that in this case, relatively cheap high-voltage electrolytic capacitors are often used, which will bring many parasitic problems.This article comprehensively introduces the principle of electronic load, especially the misunderstanding of electronic load in the process of LED measurement. Moreover, some feasible solutions are proposed in this paper in order to obtain more stable current data. I hope you can gain something after reading this article.Source; Power network
Why It Takes Decades to Produce a New Solar Material
Why It Takes Decades to Produce a New Solar Material
The solar industry is abuzz over a relative newcomer that burst onto the scene less than a decade ago and has risen rapidly through the ranks. The all-star rookie has also been published in high-impact academic journals in the last few years, but it is not a newly minted professor or a hot solar startup. It's a material known as perovskite.Materials scientists started testing perovskite's sun-capturing qualities in the 2000s, and by 2009, a team lead by Tsutomu Miyasaka from Toin University of Yokohama in Japan had produced a solar cell that converted 3.8% of the sun's light into electricity, a respectable amount for such a new material. Just last fall, another group lead by Henry Snaith from the University of Oxford published a breakthrough-their perovskite solar cells were 15.4% efficient.In a world where gains of fractions of a percent are lauded, such a leap was unprecedented. "Very few come in out of the cold and have a 15% conversion efficiency." says David Ginley, a research fellow at the National Renewably Energy Laboratory."It's exciting," says Michael McGehee, a professor of materials science at Stanford University. "It's a new material with a lot of potential."That excitement is evident in recent news coverage. Even Nature , a well-respected academic journal, hailed Snaith as one of the 2013's "ten people who mattered." "This year, Snaith amazed materials researchers by massively boosting the efficiency of solar cells made with perovskite semiconductors," they wrote.Those plaudits come with a small catch-they tacitly presume that perovskite will continue its rapid ascent. If it does, the material truly could be revolutionary. Currently, photovoltaics cost between $2 and $5 per watt depending on the scale of the installation. That's significantly lower than just five years ago, though it's still not competitive with coal or natural gas. But if perovskite continues to gain efficiency, it could tilt the playing field solidly in favor of solar power.The target is 25% efficiency. Very few types of cells exceed that goal, and even fewer are commercially available currently. "A lot of people think that you need the efficiency of the cells to be up near 25% because if the efficiency is lower, you need a larger area to get the power, and the larger area, the more the installation costs are," McGehee says. Perovskite made waves with how quickly it broke 15% efficiency, and unspoken assumption in many articles is that the material could breach 25% in a matter of years, not decades.Snaith, whose team achieved the recent perovskite milestone, seems convinced that perovskite already has commercial potential. He has founded a company that's striving to produce perovskite solar cells in mass quantity, which he says will happen in "three to five years."Snaith's compressed timeline mirrors the great strides perovskite has taken as a photovoltaic material. But the road from the laboratory to the rooftop can be filled with unexpected speed bumps, something known all too well by researchers and manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, a photovoltaic material that's just recently become available on the market. In fact, the story of CIGS could be viewed as a cautionary tale, one that might temper some of the excitement surrounding perovskite.CIGS began life as CIS, or copper indium selenide. It, too, is a semiconductor and was originally discovered in 1953 by Harry Hahn and his team at the University of Heidelberg. They published their discovery in Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie , a German-language chemistry journal. It was not uncommon at the time for chemists to publish in German, though that may have been partly why it was overlooked as a photovoltaic until 1974 when Sigurd Wagner, a young Austrian scientist and a fresh face at Bell Labs, and his team published an article on how his lab-grown crystals that could capture the sun's rays.CIS crystals were expensive and proved difficult to grow, though, which was part of the reason why Larry Kazmerski, then a professor at the University of Maine, started searching for a better technique. It did not take him long. Shortly after Wagner's first paper came out, Kazmerski told colleagues how he deposited CIS in a thin-film on a piece of glass. His first cells were between 4-5% efficient.It was a promising development, but work on CIS was only one part of a larger government investment in solar power. In the 1970s, the National Science Foundation was directing large investments in solar power research for the U.S. government. Much of the money was going toward developing silicon-based solar cells. "Silicon, they knew, would do well eventually. That was the known semiconductor," says Kannan Ramanathan, head of the CIGS team at the NREL. "Yet they wanted to divest, take risks, and nurture thin films."Work on CIS trundled along until 1981, when Boeing scientists Reid Mickelsen and Wen Chen announced at a conference in Orlando, Florida, that they had doubled Kazmerski's efficiency by depositing the material in a new way. Thin-films had arrived.Though silicon remained the favored material, a handful of companies grew interested in thin-film cells and CIS in particular. They wagered that if they could get the chemistry right, thin-film cells would be vastly cheaper to produce than silicon cells, which had to be grown as crystals. Plus, CIS could be deposited on inexpensive glass, reducing weight and materials costs. For Boeing, which used solar cells on spacecraft, lightweight panels would translate into cheaper launch costs.Meanwhile, the aerospace company's continued investment was yielding dividends. Chen and another colleague, John Stewart, figured out in the late-1980s that they could substitute gallium for some of the indium, further raising the efficiency. (That was what put the G in CIGS.)Earlier that decade, oil company Arco had also begun exploring CIS and other thin-film technologies. During the energy crisis in 1979, the company had become a serious player in the nascent solar power industry. After throwing its weight behind CIS research, it quickly developed an alternative to Boeing's production technique. It was not quite as efficient, but was considered easier to manufacture. By 1988, the Southern California-based Arco Solar produced a four-square-foot module with 11% efficiency. That same year, they offered to permanently light the Hollywood sign using solar power.Despite the bravado, things were not going well for the Arco Solar pioneer. Development problems plagued the run-up to production, frustrating its parent company. Plus, the solar power market was not growing as quickly as they had hoped. Looking to cut costs, Arco sold its solar division to Siemens in 1989.Boeing had also lost interest, and left their work to NREL. Researchers in academia and industry had to go back to the drawing board in an attempt to resolve the issues that plagued previous manufacturing efforts. But without the major players, the material that had shown so much promise in the 1970s and 1980s stumbled. It would be almost 10 years before the CIGS industry would recover.Out from the ShadowsBy the late 1990s, Siemens was feeling confident in its progress on CIGS and spooled up a pilot production line. The results of an early run were tested at NREL and scored higher than 10% efficiency. They were the first thin-film photovoltaics made outside of a lab to reach that landmark. But just as Arco had dropped its solar division after it made the 11% module, Siemens started looking for a buyer for the California-based division shortly thereafter. It eventually ended up with another oil company, Shell. (The division ended up being a hot potato; Shell would only own it for four years before selling it to Germany-based Solar World in 2006.)The 2000s could have been another lost decade for CIGS, but then, in 2003, Germany began offering generous subsidies on solar power. That encouraged a number of universities and small companies to jump in the game, who, along with NREL, would end up carrying the torch when, a few years later, Shell "walked away" from their solar division, Ramanathan says.The handful of smaller companies kept at it, encouraged by government subsidies and an influx of venture capital, fine-tuning their materials and lowering their production costs. Then, as so many times before, they ran into a series of unexpected problems. While many companies had become adept at producing cells in the lab, they could not replicate that success on a large scale. Some of these delays were blamed on an incomplete scientific understanding of the CIGS material. William N. Shafarman, a professor at the University of Delaware, and Lars Stolt, a professor at Uppsala University, wrote in 2003 that the "lack of a science base has been perhaps the biggest hindrance to the maturation of Cu(InGa)Se 2 solar cell technology as most of the progress has been empirical." At many companies, the cart had gotten in front of the horse. Between 2005-2007, 70% of thin-film panels failed, more than double the failures for 1997-2005. They had to go back to the drawing board, again.Meanwhile, manufacturers also had to perfect how the cells would be packaged and connected. Each wire, sheet of glass, and piece of aluminum had to be tested for durability and reliability. They had to simulate everything from snafus that might take place during installation to 20 years of heat and moisture. Thanks to accelerated testing, the process does not take 20 years, but it can still take many months to several years.Bert Haskell, the CTO at Pecan Street, oversaw these tests in an earlier job as director of product development at Heliovolt, an Austin, Texas-based CIGS company. There, he and his team would subject completed panels to a grueling regimen of abuse. They would yank on connecting cables, drop one-and-a-half-pound ball bearings onto the glass, and fire chunks of ice at the panels at 50 mph. They would subject them to high humidity and drastic fluctuations in temperature. They would bake them and they would freeze them. "Those tests, you might run those for 90 days or six months before you get results back," Haskell says. It was quicker than waiting 20 years, but it was not instantaneous.Add it all up, and you quickly realize that just testing the non-photovoltaic part of the module took several years. Some tests could occur in parallel with work on the CIGS cells themselves, but in the end, the entire package still had to be tested and certified.It was not until the mid-2000s that CIGS-based solar panels began to trickle into the market, more than 30 years after the material's initial discovery as a photovoltaic. Today, CIGS cells remain costly relative to silicon cells and have captured just a few percent of the market. The future could still be bright, but it will require many more years of sustained funding, research and development.Judging by the challenges CIGS confronted, it's likely that perovskite solar cells have a long road in front of them. Though the material has shown great promise, moving out of the lab and into production is not the same as producing high-efficiency cells in the lab. It takes time. "The development time for most technologies is 20 to 30 years," says Ginley, the NREL scientist."Haksell agrees. "When a scientist discovers a new material in the lab that has some kind of unique property, going from that to the point where it's applied in a useful product, it just takes a long time." (I followed up with Snaith regarding his three-to-five-year commercial timeline for perovskite solar cells, but have not heard back.)Perovskite's biggest stumbling block could be water. While most solar cells do not react well to water, perovskite's current formulation is an ionic salt, which means it's highly susceptible to water damage, both McGehee and Ginley tell me. Solar manufacturers work hard to keep their products sealed, but water has a tendency to work its way into the smallest of gaps, including those cracks that happen during installation or any of the many heating and cooling cycles solar panels endure. Reformulating the material while keeping the basic chemical structure could reduce the potential for water damage, but that would require years more research."There's still a lot of questions that need to be answered," McGehee says of perovskite. "It is exciting and I do not want to take away from it in any way, but we still need to have a wait and see attitude before we will know if this is going to be a commercial success."Solar system with both grid tie-in and backup power without battery?A Great Big Switch is simplicity itself. You need any Siemens subpanel of 12 spaces or more, and the ECSBPK01 interlock ($25) and two 2-pole breakers. A 60A from your main panel and a whatever-A from your off-grid source.You leave 2 rows empty for style points, then below that you fit the breakers for the circuits you wish to be capable of functioning on alternate power. You can have 36 of those (32 if you want to keep those style points) and if that is not enough, feed a sub-sub-panel.Throw the 2 top breakers to the right, you are on utility. Throw the 2 top breakers to the left, you are on ???. Part 1: The above. Part 2: ??? Part 3: ProfitCan we do this thing totally batteryless? I seriously doubt it. Here's why. Your freezer starts up, and for a few milliseconds it's going to pull LRA of about, say, 3000 watts. And it expects this in AC power, and so you have an inverter behind an MPPT controller. The inverter goes "OK, that's 25A, hey solar system, I need 125A" and the solar system goes "Unable". Voltage plunges toward zero, which means inverter output voltage plunges toward zero, and the freezer sits there at LRA unable to start. And this continues indefinitely until ??? some safety system in the inverter kicks in and shuts off the inverter. Why did not this work? You have 5000W of solar panel. Yes, if it's aimed directly square on to the sun. At the angle it's at, at the angle of the sun, 3000 is the best you could do, but it's also cloudy. In fact your panel has been passing in and out of clouds all day, bouncing practical output between 500 and 3000. So you need at least an ultra-capacitor to get loads started, and really it should be enough of a battery so the freezer can run a normal cycle without emptying the ultracaps in 5 seconds because a cloud rolled over. These are not good failure modes for either the inverter or the freezer. Obviously what you are afraid of is a $5000 battery bill, and then, the recurring $5000 battery bill if PV batteries are anything like car batteries. Some are, some are not . But the size of the battery is variable. It's all about sizing, really. You need the battery to carry you through the stuff you do not expect - like clouds. So it can be quite a small battery pack, as small as $100 on the low side. If you do not want to gird up for full fridge lights Roku router TV for 3 days straight with little usable sun, you do not have to. If you ever change your mind you can always add battery capacity. You may imagine solar is a steady-state source, but that's not really true. See if you can get a second-by-second readout of someone's solar system. They are all over the map on days with any clouds at all. Again, batteries make that moot for in-and-out-of-clouds days. But do not overestimate their generating ability during deep clouds. Storm clouds can be quite dark - yesterday I was working by daylight and suddenly it simply became too dark to work - a big storm rolled through. And of course snow obscures the panel totally. (except Solyndra which had a very slick answer to that, but nobody cared.) You could wake up and find the panel covered in ice from an ice storm that also knocked out your power. (It's too cold; the ice does not chisel off without risk of panel damage). So I think you are laying an assumption that solar power will always be ample during a power outage. I am not sure of that at all, but I am from the rust belt - power outages usually happened in winter storms, where you would not have the solarization to make a panel very productive, first because of clouds/snow/ice, and second because it's winter in the first place. You can also top up battery capacity with a generator if you have long sunless runs.
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